Bit-fiddling is possible in Java

August 26, 2014

We have a service interface for Modbus devices that we can use remotely from Java. Modbus supports only very basic data types like single bits and 16-bit words. Our service interface provides the contents of a 16-bit input or holding register as a Java integer.

Often one 16-bit register is not enough to solve a problem in your domain, like representing a temperature as floating point number. A common solution is to combine two 16-bit registers and interpret their contents as a floating point number.

So the question is how to combine the bits of the two int values and convert them to a float in Java. There are at least two possiblities I want to show you.

The “old-fashioned” way includes bit-shifting and bit-wise operators which you actually can use in Java despite of the major flaw regarding primitive types: there are no unsigned data types; even byte is signed!

public static float floatFrom(int mostSignificat16Bits, int leastSignificant16Bits) {
    int bits = (mostSignificat16Bits << 16) | leastSignificant16Bits;
    return Float.intBitsToFloat(bits);

As seemingly more modern way is using java.nio.ByteBuffer:

public static float nioFloatFrom(int mostSignificat16Bits, int leastSignificant16Bits) {
    final ByteBuffer buf = ByteBuffer.allocate(4).putShort((short) mostSignificat16Bits).putShort((short) leastSignificant16Bits);
    buf.rewind(); // rewind to the beginning of the buffer, so it can be read!
    return buf.getFloat();

The second method seems superior when working with many values because you can fill the buffer conveniently in one phase and extract the float values conveniently by subsequent calls to getFloat().


Even if it is not one of Java’s strengths you actually can work on the bit- and byte-level and perform low level tasks. Do not let the lack of unsigned data types scare you; signedness is irrelevant for the bits in memory.

Dynamic addition and removal of collection-bound items in an HTML form with Angular.js and Rails

August 19, 2014

A common pattern in one of our web applications is the management of a list of items in a web form where the user can add, remove and edit multiple items and finally submit the data:


The basic skeleton for this type of functionality is very simple with Angular.js. We have an Angular controller with an “items” array:

angular.module('example', [])
  .controller('ItemController', ['$scope', function($scope) {
    $scope.items = [];

And we have an HTML form bound to our Angular controller:

<form ... ng-app="example" ng-controller="ItemController"> 
    <tr ng-repeat="item in items track by $index">
      <td><span class="remove-button" ng-click="items.splice($index, 1)"></span></td>
      <td><input type="text" ng-model=""></td>
      <td><input type="text" ng-model="item.value"></td>
      <td colspan="3">
        <span class="add-button" ng-click="items.push({})"></span>
  <!-- ... submit button etc. -->

The input fields for each item are placed in a table row, together with a remove button per row. At the end of the table there is an add button.

How do we connect this with a Rails model, so that existing items are filled into the form, and items are created, updated and deleted on submit?

First you have to transform the existing Ruby objects of your has-many association (in this example @foo.items) into JavaScript objects by converting them to JSON and assigning them to a variable:

<%= javascript_tag do %>
  var items = <%= escape_javascript @foo.items.to_json.html_safe %>;
<% end %>

Bring this data into your Angular controller scope by assigning it to a property of $scope:

.controller('ItemController', ['$scope', function($scope) {
  $scope.items = items;

Name the input fields according to Rails conventions and use the $index variable from the “ng-repeat” directive to provide the correct index value. You also need a hidden input field for the id, if the item already has one:

    <input name="foo[items_attributes][$index][id]" type="hidden" ng-value="" ng-if="">
    <input name="foo[items_attributes][$index][name]" type="text" ng-model="">
    <input name="foo[items_attributes][$index][value]" type="text" ng-model="item.value">

In order for Rails to remove existing elements from a has-many association via submitted form data, a special attribute named “_destroy” must be set for each item to be removed. This only works if

accepts_nested_attributes_for :items, allow_destroy: true

is set in the Rails model class, which contains the has-many association.

We modify the click handler of the remove button to set a flag on the JavaScript object instead of removing it from the JavaScript items array:

<span class="remove-button" ng-click="item.removed = true"></span>

And we render an item only if the flag is not set by adding an “ng-if” directive:

<tr ng-repeat="item in items track by $index" ng-if="!item.removed">

At the end of the form we render hidden input fields for those items, which are flagged as removed and which already have an id:

<div style="display: none" ng-repeat="item in items track by $index"
ng-if="item.removed &&">
  <input type="hidden" name="foo[items_attributes][$index][id]" ng-value="">
  <input type="hidden" name="foo[items_attributes][$index][_destroy]" value="1">

On submit Rails will delete those elements of the has-many association with the “_destroy” attribute set to “1”. The other elements will be either updated (if they have an id attribute set) or created (if they have no id attribute set).

How to speed up your ORM queries of n x m associations

August 11, 2014

What causes a speedup like this? (all numbers are in ms)

Disclaimer: the absolute benchmark numbers are for illustration purposes, the relationship and the speedup between the different approaches are important (just for the curious: I measured 500 entries per table in a PostgreSQL database with both Rails 4.1.0 and Grails 2.3.8 running on Java 7 on a recent MBP running OSX 10.8)

Say you have the model classes Book and (Book)Writer which are connected via a n x m table named Authorship:

A typical query would be to list all books with its authors like:

Fowler, Martin: Refactoring

A straight forward way is to query all authorships:

In Rails:

# 1500 ms {|authorship| "#{authorship.writer.lastname}, #{authorship.writer.firstname}: #{}"}

In Grails:

// 585 ms
Authorship.list().collect {"${it.writer.lastname}, ${it.writer.firstname}: ${}"}

This is unsurprisingly not very fast. The problem with this approach is that it causes the famous n+1 select problem. The first option we have is to use eager fetching. In Rails we can use ‘includes’ or ‘joins’. ‘Includes’ loads the associated objects via additional queries, one for authorship, one for writer and one for book.

# 2300 ms
Authorship.includes(:book, :writer).all

‘Joins’ uses SQL inner joins to load the associated objects.

# 1000 ms
Authorship.joins(:book, :writer).all
# returns only the first element
Authorship.joins(:book, :writer).includes(:book, :writer).all

Additional queries with ‘includes’ in our case slows down the whole request but with joins we can more than halve our time. The combination of both directives causes Rails to return just one record and is therefore ruled out.

In Grails using ‘belongsTo’ on the associations speeds up the request considerably.

class Authorship {
    static belongsTo = [book:Book, writer:BookWriter]

    Book book
    BookWriter writer

// 430 ms

Also we can implement eager loading with specifying ‘lazy: false’ in our mapping which boosts a mild performance increase.

class Authorship {
    static mapping = {
        book lazy: false
        writer lazy: false

// 416 ms

Can we do better? The normal approach is to use ‘has_many’ associations and query from one side of the n x m association. Since we use more properties from the writer we start from here.

class Writer < ActiveRecord::Base
  has_many :authors
  has_many :books, through: :authors

Testing the different combinations of ‘includes’ and ‘joins’ yields interesting results.

# 1525 ms

# 2300 ms

# 196 ms

With both options our request is now faster than ever (196 ms), a speedup of 7.
What about Grails? Adding ‘hasMany’ and the authorship table as a join table is easy.

class BookWriter {
    static mapping = {
        books joinTable:[name: 'authorships', key: 'writer_id']

    static hasMany = [books:Book]
// 313 ms, adding lazy: false results in 295 ms
BookWriter.list().collect {"${it.lastname}, ${it.firstname}: ${it.books*.title}"}

The result is rather disappointing. Only a mild speedup (2x) and even slower than Rails.

Is this the most we can get out of our queries?
Looking at the benchmark results and the detailed numbers Rails shows us hints that the query per se is not the problem anymore but the deserialization. What if we try to limit our created object graph and use a model class backed by a database view? We can create a view containing all the attributes we need even with associations to the books and writers.

create view author_views as (SELECT "authorships"."writer_id" AS writer_id, "authorships"."book_id" AS book_id, "books"."title" AS book_title, "writers"."firstname" AS writer_firstname, "writers"."lastname" AS writer_lastname FROM "authorships" INNER JOIN "books" ON "books"."id" = "authorships"."book_id" INNER JOIN "writers" ON "writers"."id" = "authorships"."writer_id")

Let’s take a look at our request time:

# 15 ms, :writer_firstname, :book_title) { |author| "#{author.writer_lastname}, #{author.writer_firstname}: #{author.book_title}" }
// 13 ms
AuthorView.list().collect {"${it.writerLastname}, ${it.writerFirstname}: ${it.bookTitle}"}

13 ms and 15 ms. This surprised me a lot. Seeing this in comparison shows how much this impacts performance of our request.

The lesson here is that sometimes the performance can be improved outside of our code and that mapping database results to objects is a costly operation.

When UTF8 != UTF8

July 21, 2014


Recently I encountered a problem with umlauts in file names. I had to read names from a directory and find and update the appropriate entry in the database. So if I had a file named hund.pdf (Hund is German for dog) I had to find the corresponding record in the database and attach the file. Almost all files went smooth but the ones with umlauts failed all.

Certainly an encoding problem I thought. So I converted the string to UTF-8 before querying. Again the query returned an empty result set. So I read up on the various configuration options for JDBC, Oracle and Active Record (it is a JRuby on Rails based web app). I tried them all starting with nls_language and ending with temporary setting the locale. No luck.

Querying the database with a hard coded string containing umlauts worked. Both strings even printed on the console looked identically.

So last but not least I compared the string from the file name with a hard coded one: they weren’t equal. Looking at the bytes a strange character combination was revealed \204\136. What’s that? UTF8 calls this a combining diaeresis. What’s that? In UTF8 you can encode umlauts with their corresponding characters or use a combination of the character without an umlaut and the combining diaeresis. So ‘ä’ becomes ‘a\204\136′.


The solution is to normalize the string. In (J)Ruby you can achieve this in the following way:

string = string.mb_chars.normalize.to_s

And in Java this would be:

string = Normalizer.normalize(string, Normalizer.Form.NFKC)

Ruby uses NFKC (or kc for short) as a default and suggests this for databases and validations.

Lesson learned: So the next time you encounter encoding problems look twice it might be in the right encoding but with the wrong bytes.

Finally: return considered harmful

July 7, 2014

Ok, calm down already – I’m not going to take your return statement away. It’s a nice little statement that gets rarer and rarer,  mostly because many modern languages allow for implicit return values, e.g. in Scala, everything is an expression and the last expression of a method is its return value – except when it isn’t. You dont need to write an explicit return statement anymore, so our laziness takes over and we omit it.

And I’m not argueing that a finally block is a bad thing – quite the contrary. Even in the age of try-with-resources and autoclose closures, a well-crafted finally block is a beautiful piece of code at its right place.

But put the two together and you’ve got a recipe for desaster, at least in Java (try it in your language of choice with care). Let’s have a look at code:

public void doSomething() {
    try {
        throw new Error("drama!");
    } finally {
        // dispose resources here

Ok, I could have spared you the drama of an Error and just thrown a RuntimeException (or a declared and checked Exception), but it’ll soon illustrate the effect all the better.

First, the code does exactly what it should: if you call the method, you’ll get to catch an Error and all resources that were used inside the method are cleaned up right before you catch it. And since the method has no return value, you don’t miss out there.

But what if I want to give one of those endangered return statements a new home and insert it into the finally block?

public void doSomething() {
    try {
        throw new Error("drama!");
    } finally {
        // dispose resources here

Not much has changed. I’m still not missing any return value and the Error still gets thrown. The resources are cleaned up quite as thorough as before, but something important has changed: You won’t ever see the Error. You won’t catch it because it gets eaten by that return statement at the end of the finally block.

So in short: return statements are hungry little beasts that will eat your Throwables if you corral them inside a finally block.

No wonder nobody wants to have them in their code if they behave like that.

Oh, and rest assured that you will be warned: All modern IDEs will point you to the inevitable desaster waiting to happen, if only with a compiler warning.

But where do Throwables go when they got eaten? Good question. They don’t show up on any UncaughtExceptionHandler, they don’t even stay in memory. Probably, they just are digested, never to be seen again.

If you don’t regard return statements as a little more dangerous now, you probably also raise switch-statements for fun.

Grails Update from 2.2 to 2.3

June 30, 2014

An update in the minor version does not seem like a big step but this is one brought a lot of changes, so here a step by step guide which highlights some pitfalls.

First update the version of Grails in your application properties:


The tomcat and hibernate plugins now have versions of their respective frameworks and not the version number of Grails:


Grails 2.3 has a new databinding mechanism. To use the old one, especially if you use custom property editors you have to add this option to your Config.groovy:

grails.databinding.useSpringBinder = true

But even with the old databinding something changed. The field id is not bound in command objects you need to bind id explicitly:

def action = { MyCommand command -> = params['id']?.toLong()

Besides the databinding mechanism also the dependency resolving changed. But you can use the old ivy mechanism by including this in BuildConfig.groovy:


Nonetheless all dependencies must be declared in or BuildConfig.groovy. If you have a lib directory with local jars in your application you need to add this to your repositories as a local directory:

grails.project.dependency.resolution = {
    repositories {
        flatDir name:'myRepo', dirs:'lib'

When you have all dependencies declared your application should start.


Grails 2.3 features a new test mode: forking. This causes some problems and is better to be deactivated in BuildConfig.groovy:

grails.project.fork = [
        test: false,

With the new version only JUnit4 style tests are supported. This means that you don’t extend GroovyTestCase or GrailsUnitTestCase. All rules must be public and non static. All tests methods need to be annotated with @Test. Set up methods are annotated with @Before and must be public. The tearDown methods must also be annotated with @After and be public. A bug in Grails prevents you from naming the set up and tear down methods freely: the names must be setUp and tearDown. All test methods must be public void, the old def declaration is not supported anymore. Now without extending GroovyTestCase you lose the assertion methods and need to add a static import:

import static groovy.util.GroovyTestCase.*

Unit Tests

All tests should be annotated with @TestMixin([GrailsUnitTestMixin]). If you need to mock domain classes you change mockDomain to @Mock:

class MyTest {
	public void testThis() {
      mockDomain(MyDomainClass, [mdc])
class MyTest {
	public void testThis() {

Configuration is now already mocked and your properties can be added easily:'123'

Integration tests

As mentioned before setUp method naming has a bug: you have to name them setUp otherwise the changes to your database aren’t rollbacked.

Acceptance Tests with Selenium

You need to patch the Remote Control Plugin because of a ClassNotFoundException. Add an additional constructor to RemoteControl.groovy to support setting the classloader:

RemoteControl(ClassLoader loader) {
  super(new HttpTransport(getFunctionalTestReceiverAddress(), loader), loader)

In your tests you call this new constructor with the classloader of your class:

new RemoteControl(getClass().classLoader)

Using a Groovy Mixin in your application does not work in your tests and need to be replaced with grails.util.Mixin. But this only works in one way: the target class can access the mixin but the mixin not the target class. For this to work you need to let your mixin implement MixinTargetAware and declare a field named target:

class MyMixin implements MixinTargetAware {
	def target

Subtle changes and pitfalls

If you have a classname with a Controller suffix and a corresponding test but which isn’t a Grails controller Grails nevertheless tries to mock the class in your unit tests. If you rename the test to something without controller everything works fine.

In our pre 2.3 project we had some select tags in our views and used fieldValue for the selection:

<g:select value="${fieldValue(bean: object, field: 'value')}">

But now the select tag uses equals which fails if the values aren’t Strings. Just use the unescaped value:

<g:select value="${object?.value}">

I hope this guide and hints help others to avoid the headaches when upgrading your Grails application.

Using Rails with a legacy database schema – Part 2

June 16, 2014

Part one of this blog post mini-series showed how to override default table names and primary key names in ActiveRecord model classes, and how to define alias attributes for legacy column names.

This part will discuss some options for primary key definitions in the schema file, which are relevant for legacy schemas, as well as primary key value generation on Oracle databases.

Primary key schema definition

The database schema definition of a Rails application is usually provided in a file called schema.rb via a simple domain specific language.

The create_table method implicitly adds a primary key column with name id (of numeric type) by default.

create_table 'users' do |t|
  t.string 'name', limit: 20
  # ...

If the primary key has a different name you can easily specify it via the primary_key option:

create_table 'users', primary_key: 'user_key' do |t|
  t.string 'name', limit: 20
  # ...

But what if a table has a primary key of non-numeric type? The Rails schema DSL does not directly support this. But there’s a workaround: you can set the id option of create_table to false, declare the primary key column like an ordinary non-nullable column, and add the primary key constraint afterwards via execute.

create_table 'users', id: false do |t|
  t.string 'user_key', null: false
  t.string 'name', limit: 20
  # ...
execute 'ALTER TABLE user ADD PRIMARY KEY (user_key)'

Primary key value generation

On Oracle databases new primary key values are usually created via sequences. The Oracle adapter for ActiveRecord assumes sequence names in the form of table name + “_seq”.  You can override this default sequence name in a model class via the sequence_name property:

class User < ActiveRecord::Base
  self.sequence_name = 'user_sequence'
  # ...

Sometimes primary key values are auto-generated via triggers. In this case you need the Oracle Enhanced adapter, which is a superset of the original ActiveRecord Oracle adapter, but with additional support for working with legacy databases. Now you can set the sequence_name property to the value :autogenerated:

class User < ActiveRecord::Base
  self.sequence_name = :autogenerated
  # ...

This circumvents the default convention and tells the adapter to not include primary key values in generated INSERT statements.


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