Simple C++11 – Part I – Unit Structure

C++ has long had the stigma of an overlay complex and unproductive language. Lately, with the advent of C++11, things have brightened a bit, but there are still a lot of misconceptions about the language. I think this is mostly because C++ was taught in a wrong way. This series aims to show my, hopefully somewhat simpler, way of using C++11.

Since it is typically the first thing I do when starting a new project, I will start with how I am setting up a new compile unit, e.g. a header and compile unit pair.

Note that I will try not to focus on a specific C++11 paradigm, such as object-oriented or imperative. This structure seems to work well for all kinds of paradigms. But without much further ado, here’s the header file for my imaginary “MyUnit” unit:

MyUnit.hpp

#pragma once

#include <vector>
#include "MyStuff.hpp"

namespace MyModule { namespace MyUnit {

/** Does something only a good bar could.
*/
std::vector<float> bar(int fooCount);

/** Foo is an integral part of any program.
    Be sure to call it frequently.
*/
void foo(MyStuff::BestType somethingGood);

}}

I prefer the .hpp file ending for headers. While I’m perfectly fine with .h, I think it is helpful to differentiate pure C headers from C++ headers.

#pragma once

I’m using #pragma once here instead of include guards. It is not an official part of the standard, but all the big compilers (Visual C++, g++ and clang) support it, making it a de-facto standard. Unlike include guards, you only have to add only one line, which says exactly what you want to achieve with it. You do not have to find a unique identifier for your include guard that will most certainly break if you rename the file/unit. It’s more readable, more resilient to change and easier to set up.

Namespaces

I like to have all the contents of a unit in a single namespace. The actual structure of the namespaces – i.e. per unit or per module or something else entirely depends on the specifics of the project, but filling more than one namespace is a guarantee for chaos. It’s usually a sign that the unit should be broken up into smaller pieces. An exception to this would be the infamous “detail” namespace, as seen in many of the Boost libraries. In that case, the namespace is not used to structure the API, but to explicitly omit things from the API that have to be visible for technical reasons.

Documentation

Documentation goes into the header, not into the implementation. The header describes the API, not only to the compiler, but also to humans. It is by no means an implementation detail, but part of the seam that isolates it from the rest of the code. Note that this part of the documentation concerns the API contract only, never the implementation. That part goes into the .cpp file.

But now to the implementation file:

MyUnit.cpp

#include "MyUnit.hpp"

#include "CoolFunctionality.hpp"

using namespace MyModule;
using namespace MyUnit;

namespace {

int helperFunction(float rhs)
{
  /* ... */
}

}// namespace

std::vector<float> MyUnit::bar(int fooCount)
{
  /* ... */
}

void MyUnit::foo(MyStuff::BestType somethingGood)
{
  /* ... */
}

Own #include first

The only rule I have for includes is that the unit’s own include is always the first. This is to test whether the header is self-sufficient, i.e. that it will compile without being in the context of other headers or, even worse, code from an implementation file. Some people like to order the rest of their includes according to their “origin”, e.g. sections for system headers or library headers. I think imposing any extra order here is not needed. If anything, I prefer not waste time sorting include directives and just append an include when I need it.

Using namespace

I choose using-directives of my unit’s namespaces over explicitly accessing the namespaces each time. Unlike the headers, the implementation file lives in a locally defined context. Therefore, it is not a problem to use a very specific view onto the unit. In fact, it would be a problem to be overly generic. The same argument also holds for other “local” modules that this unit is only using, as long as there are no collisions. I avoid using namespaces from external libraries to mark the library boundary (such as std, boost etc.).

Unnamed namespace

The unnamed namespace contains all the implementation helpers specific to this unit. It is quite common for this to contain a lot of the “meat” of an actual unit, while the unit’s visible functions merely wrap and canonize the functionality implemented here. I try to keep only one unnamed namespace in each file, to have a clear separation of what is supposed to be visible to the outside – and what is not.

Visible implementation

The implementation of the visible API of the module is the most obvious part of the .cpp file. For consistency reasons, the order of the functions should be the same as in the header.

I’d advice against implementing in a file wide open namespace. That means balancing an unnecessary pair of parenthesis over the whole implementation file.  Also, you can not only define functions and types, but also declare them – this leads to a function further down in the implementation to see a different namespace than one before it.

Conclusion

This concludes the first part. I’ve played with the thought of using a 3-piece setup instead, extending the header/implementation with a unit-test file, but have not gathered any sharable experience yet. This setup, however, has worked for me for a long time and with many different projects. Have you had similar – or completely different – setups that worked for you? Do tell!

7 thoughts on “Simple C++11 – Part I – Unit Structure

  1. “just append an include when I need it”

    Talking about that: Is there a special reason for you to include in the .cpp file as it has already been included inside the header?

  2. Pingback: Simple C++11 – Part II – Class declarations | Schneide Blog

  3. Pingback: Simple C++11 – Part III – Best friends | Schneide Blog

  4. Pingback: Why I’m not using C++ unnamed namespaces anymore | Schneide Blog

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