How do I start a project

On my quest to build better software for people and their needs I try to move my current agile project approach to a more user centered and outcome oriented one.

This starts right at the beginning of a project. After getting the go from the client I start with meeting the project leads on the client side, the ones who will make decisions and control the way of the project.
I like to take an assumption driven process or learning focussed one to ask questions and clear my assumptions on my way.
The first questions I have are:

  • who will use the software
  • who will be affected by the software/project
  • what are their goals/expected outcomes, what if they could choose only one
  • what do they expect from the software
  • what will happen if the project stalls or even fails

The people using the software aka the users are one of the main focus during the project but also the people who get benefits from the software without directly using it are really important and should not be neglected. These can be the people responsible for operating the software or managers getting reports from actual users. I keep them in mind so that other parts which are often missed during a user centered approach are considered.
All these people have some expectations how the software will affect them, some even have goals or need something to come out of the project. These outcomes cover a great range: from measureable business goals like increasing revenue or retention rate, to personal benefits like visibility. It is important to get a rough priority, I use a narrowing question like ‘what if you could choose only one’.
Besides from goals and outcomes people have also imaginations how the software will be used by them, in which context and how often.
These are the positive effects of the project and the software but all is not sunshine, so I also look at what will happen if the project is delayed, stops or even *shudder* fails. These are the risks that I need to consider and may be even plan for.
All these questions help me frame the project from the end. I know what goals to aim for and in which direction the journey goes.
This is my first step to build a shared understanding among the project participants. The steps to learn about what picture they have in mind. My questions and their answers help me to clarify the direction. After that I need to plan the first phase. For this I have to clear my mind and start with a beginner’s mind to find my hidden assumptions. Every assumption I or other have need to be called out explicitly. I have to capture it and formulate a corresponding learning step.

But this is a topic for another post…

The definition of done

From large to small, from projects to issues, a team needs to define when they are considered done.
This decision differs from team to team, some have steps to done, others just one state. Even the words used in your issue tracker reflect your choices: what does ‘fixed’ mean, what is ‘closed’ used for…
Even some practices like test driven development define a state of done: the code is done if all tests are green and it is refactored.

What’s your definition of done?

Let’s take a look at some examples:

  • tests are green and code is refactored
  • QA says ok
  • customer/stakeholder/product owner accepts the issue
  • developer thinks the code reflects the description in the issue
  • a predefined spec, maybe even with an acceptance test, is fulfilled
  • no bugs were found while clicking through
  • the code is merged with the master branch
  • the continuous integration tool has found no errors

The problem with this ‘definition of done’s is that either they look for an external person to accept by their opinion/guideline or concentrate on some output. But the people needing the software do not want the software in its own regard. They want to reach a goal through the software. The software is a mean to an end: their goals. Without defining the goals and needs beforehand you are either doomed to guess them and are at the mercy of arbitariness (from your point of view) or concentrate on some measurable output like code, tests or a completed feature.

Defining what the user wants to do with this new feature or project should be the first thing in a project right after the initial introductions. Who will use the app or the feature? (the intended audience, the users) What do they expect from it? (the benefits) What goal do they want to reach?
With this questions and answers you have a target. After completing the issues or project you can see if the target has been reached, if the goals are met. It might be the same with an acceptance process from a stakeholder but here you know the target beforehand not after.

Personas: The great misunderstanding

Reminder: What are personas ?

Personas were first described by Alan Cooper in his ground breaking book “The inmates are running the asylum”:

Our most effective tool is profoundly simple: Develop a precise description of our user and what he wishes to accomplish.

He goes on to define personas as “hypothetical archetypes of actual users” and states that personas “are defined by their goals”.
One of the key points here is that personas are never made up but are grounded in research. They are used to provide condensed information about the result of the user research. Another take away is that a persona description should include its goals.

The misunderstanding

In recent times some designers dumped personas because they are 1) imaginary and 2) defined by attributes that leave out causality. The problem here is that personas are often seen as a collection of mere demographic data (like age, job, income, …). But this only describes marketing personas not the personas imagined by Alan Cooper. As seen in his books the data of a persona is never made up but inferred from user research. Also demographics play only a minor role in creating personas, citing Mr. Cooper again:

Personas are segmented along ranges of user behaviour, not demographics or buying behaviour.

So the behaviour of our users defines the persona not any demographic trait.

The causality mentioned in the criticism misses a vital part of a persona: the scenario. Personas go hand-in-hand with scenarios (by Alan Cooper, About Face):

Persona-based scenarios are concise narrative descriptions of one or more personas using a product or service to achieve specific goals.

and

Scenario content and context are derived from information gathered during the Research phase and analyzed during the Modeling phase

So with these scenarios personas describe the context and the goals and behaviours of our users.

As we see with the criticism the context, goals and motivations of our users are important. Personas and scenarios should not be made up but condensed from research. They are used to say ‘no’ to decisions in the process of designing. A word of warning: do not abstract your persona too far away from your users. One goal of personas are to built empathy. If your personas are too artificial your empathy will suffer. Also I like how Jeff Patton uses research findings: for him they are like vacation photos, if you’ve been there they are reminder what happened.

Consensus

The criticism largely comes from designers favoring the jobs-to-be-done (JTBD) methodology. Jobs-to-be-done is a framework to analyse and describe why a users hires a product or service to get something done. It provides a very useful perspective on the context and behaviour of users. Both approaches (personas and jobs) can be combined. Where personas provide a human connection, jobs provide a contextual one. Shahrzad Samadzadeh provides a sketch how both can be combined with the help of a journey map. All three methods help to balance each approach: the personas help to avoid making the jobs too analytic, the jobs help to ground and limit the personas in research valuable to the problem at hand and journeys can bring all together.

Mapping the user’s workflow

One of the most important things to understand before starting any design or development is the user’s workflow(s). A user uses your app to reach a goal. His starting point is the start of the workflow. His goal its end. He takes steps in order to get from the start to his goal.
The order and the type of steps he takes helps us to understand how he reaches his goals at the moment. Visualizing these steps, often called mapping, is a great way to see the system from the user’s perspective: what does he do with the system, how and when does he do it.
This workflow helps us to keep the big picture in mind and organise planning and execution around the important part of the project: the user goals.

How does a workflow look?

Use the visualization or tool that suits you most. A workflow can be a sketch of boxes and arrows. Or an excel sheet. You can use a diagramming software or a presentation software. The important point is that you see the start, the goals and the steps and can annotate each step with important details.

How can we create the workflow

A workflow describes a series of actions. When the system supports the user to get from his start to his goal our application does its job. The user experience is how efficient and pleasant it is for the user to take each step.
One way to find out about the steps the user takes is to observe him doing so. At first: try to only watch and listen. Take notes. Be open. Record each step as if you were a beginner knowing nothing about the system or how the software works or should work. Especially watch out for the struggles.
Struggles can be seen in:

  • mistakes
  • back steps
  • pauses
  • changing applications
  • repeated steps

The struggles give us a hint where to put our energy. In the second run keep an eye open for unusual steps. Unusual steps are actions which seem complicated or unnecessary from a beginner’s mind. Start with the notion that every step is needed but find out the reasons why it is. In subsequent observations look for variations and ask what information lead the user to decide differently this time.
Armed with your recordings you can now sketch the first version of what you understood about how the user reaches his goal using the current systems.

CSS 3D transforms

If you are like me when thinking about 3D in the browser you immediately speak of WebGL. But what most developers forget is that we use simple 3D mechanism in our web sites and applications already: the z-index.
While the z-index in only stacking flat containers above each other. Almost all modern browsers can use CSS to create simple 3D models.
Let’s start with a cuboid.

<div class="container">
  <div id="cuboid">
    <div class="front">1</div>
    <div class="back">2</div>
    <div class="right">3</div>
    <div class="left">4</div>
    <div class="top">5</div>
    <div class="bottom">6</div>
  </div>
</div>

We have 6 sides and for easier recognizing each one each has a number on it. We make them bigger and give them a different background to distinguish them further.

.container {
  width: 300px;
  height: 300px;
  position: relative;
  margin: 0 auto 40px;
  padding-top: 100px;
}

#cuboid {
  width: 100%;
  height: 100%;
  position: absolute;
}

#cuboid div {
  display: block;
  position: absolute;
  border: 2px solid black;
  line-height: 196px;
  font-size: 120px;
  font-weight: bold;
  color: white;
  text-align: center;
}

Until now we didn’t use any 3D transformations. For ordering the sides we rotate and translate each side in its place.

    #cuboid .front  { transform: translateZ(100px); }
    #cuboid .back   { transform: rotateX(-180deg) translateZ(0px); }
    #cuboid .right  { transform: rotateY(90deg) translateZ(150px) translateX(-50px); }
    #cuboid .left   { transform: rotateY(-90deg) translateZ(50px) translateX(50px); }
    #cuboid .top    { transform: rotateX(90deg) translateZ(50px) translateY(50px); }
    #cuboid .bottom { transform: rotateX(-90deg) translateZ(200px) translateY(-50px); }

This brought the back side on top but no 3D visible yet. Further we tell the browser to use 3d on its children and move the scene a bit out.

#cuboid {
  transform-style: preserve-3d;
  transform: translateZ( -100px );
}

Still we are trapped in flatland. Ah we are looking straight onto the front. So we rotate the scene.

#cuboid {
  transform-style: preserve-3d;
  transform: translateZ( -100px ) rotateX(20deg) rotateY(20deg);
}

Now we have depth. Something is quite not right. If we remember one thing from our OpenGL days we need another ingredient to make it look 3D: a perspective.

.container {
  perspective: 1200px;
}

Last but not least we add animation to see it spinning.

#cuboid {
  transform-style: preserve-3d;
  transform: translateZ(-100px) rotateX(20deg) rotateY(20deg);
  animation: spinCuboid 5s infinite ease-out;
}
@keyframes spinCuboid {
  0% { transform: translateZ(-100px) rotateX(0deg) rotateY(0deg); }
  100% { transform: translateZ(-100px) rotateX(360deg) rotateY(360deg); }
}

What UX and sales have in common

In the past sales has often been disregarded. But modern sales is more like UX. The goal of modern sales is to bring a positive impact to both the seller and the buyer. This is called a win-win. Both parties win.
Shortcuts or favors result in one party losing which is not a sustainable strategy.
For the buying to be winning a seller has to care about the needs of the buyer. These needs range from jobs to be done to personal ones. As a seller you employ UX research methods like interviews and open questions targeting the thoughts and feelings of the buyer. The wins are always personal never something abstract like a company strategy or even KPIs. But: the wins are based upon result: measurable, objective things like conversion rates, efficiency improvements, closed sales. Together they are called win-results: an objective metric that has a personal benefit for the buyer.

Assumptions in UX can be dangerous and can doom a whole product. Assuming win-results or the wrong needs you can miss the buyer completely and lose the sale. In strategic sales every uncertain or missing information or contact is regarded as a red flag. UX should also mark its blind spots. The product kata is a great way to eliminate assumptions in a project.

But even if you know the needs you have to take into account the context. The personal and emotional situation a buyer is in has direct consequences for how you need to address him. The same with UX where context and the job to be done control your solutions – what works and what not.

If you are interested in a more person centered sales strategy I recommend reading strategic selling and following blogs like Seth Godin and Bernadette Jiwa

Discount UX

Creating a better user experience does not need to be expensive, you don’t need fancy tools like eye tracking or facial expression detection to make a difference. Here are some tools I use to get a better understanding of what users need.

Sketching

The universal tool to communicate besides words are sketches. Whether I draw an idea for a user interface, use a state diagram to discuss transitions or draw boxes and arrows to show connections, sketches at the heart of everyday working and thinking. What you need for this? Paper and a pencil.

Observation

In order to understand a human using your system you not only need to talk to him but you have to observe him doing his work. This is not just playing the fly on the wall. These sessions are interactive in nature, resulting in a back and forth. The user shows you how he works, you ask questions, he goes into more detail, you wonder about certain points, he explain his reasoning (or sometimes has wonders himself). Again paper and pencil is great. Having the option to take screenshots or (permission provided) a photo is even better. The most crucial is an open mind. You need to go in with a beginner’s mind: do not assume anything and wonder about almost everything.

Card sort

Observation is a pretty direct way to learn about the user doing his work. But even then some part of the mental model is hidden. To dig deeper into what kind of concepts and words he uses and how these are interrelated, a card sorting session can be helpful. Together with him we draw those words onto cards and let him sort them into groups and give them priorities. Here often discussions arise about the exact words you write on the paper. Some words need to be in more than one group, two different words mean the same, another word means something different in a different context. Here you also can take a glimpse at (sub-)domain bounds. Again cards, a pencil and paper to take notes is all you need.

Design studio or crazy 8

Sketching is so helpful you can do it even in a group. If you need to brainstorm for a user interface you take a sheet of paper and divide into 8 sections. Then you draw 8 very simple sketchy version of the UI in 8 – 16 minutes. After that you evaluate them in the group against your goals. The first round produces divergent sketches after seeing each other drawings, you will see that the next round converges into a common direction. You probably guessed it already: paper and a pencil is all you need.

Paper Journey Mapping

The last one in this group is more of an analyzing and communicating results tool. A journey map is a way to show the user (his thoughts, feelings and actions) along the steps he takes in his daily work. This map can highlight different aspects of your findings: the many applications he has to use to get his job done, the critical parts which mostly affect his mood, the frustrations, the many points for failure, the different people involved and so on. A large (DIN A3 or bigger) piece of paper is helpful and different colors of pencils help to highlight aspects.

Summary

All these methods use (almost only) pen and paper but are very helpful in getting to a better user understanding and therefore a better user experience. What are your tools for understanding?
If you have any questions or need more details please feel free to comment. I am at the starting point of the user experience journey and like to learn from others.