CSS 3D transforms

If you are like me when thinking about 3D in the browser you immediately speak of WebGL. But what most developers forget is that we use simple 3D mechanism in our web sites and applications already: the z-index.
While the z-index in only stacking flat containers above each other. Almost all modern browsers can use CSS to create simple 3D models.
Let’s start with a cuboid.

<div class="container">
  <div id="cuboid">
    <div class="front">1</div>
    <div class="back">2</div>
    <div class="right">3</div>
    <div class="left">4</div>
    <div class="top">5</div>
    <div class="bottom">6</div>

We have 6 sides and for easier recognizing each one each has a number on it. We make them bigger and give them a different background to distinguish them further.

.container {
  width: 300px;
  height: 300px;
  position: relative;
  margin: 0 auto 40px;
  padding-top: 100px;

#cuboid {
  width: 100%;
  height: 100%;
  position: absolute;

#cuboid div {
  display: block;
  position: absolute;
  border: 2px solid black;
  line-height: 196px;
  font-size: 120px;
  font-weight: bold;
  color: white;
  text-align: center;

Until now we didn’t use any 3D transformations. For ordering the sides we rotate and translate each side in its place.

    #cuboid .front  { transform: translateZ(100px); }
    #cuboid .back   { transform: rotateX(-180deg) translateZ(0px); }
    #cuboid .right  { transform: rotateY(90deg) translateZ(150px) translateX(-50px); }
    #cuboid .left   { transform: rotateY(-90deg) translateZ(50px) translateX(50px); }
    #cuboid .top    { transform: rotateX(90deg) translateZ(50px) translateY(50px); }
    #cuboid .bottom { transform: rotateX(-90deg) translateZ(200px) translateY(-50px); }

This brought the back side on top but no 3D visible yet. Further we tell the browser to use 3d on its children and move the scene a bit out.

#cuboid {
  transform-style: preserve-3d;
  transform: translateZ( -100px );

Still we are trapped in flatland. Ah we are looking straight onto the front. So we rotate the scene.

#cuboid {
  transform-style: preserve-3d;
  transform: translateZ( -100px ) rotateX(20deg) rotateY(20deg);

Now we have depth. Something is quite not right. If we remember one thing from our OpenGL days we need another ingredient to make it look 3D: a perspective.

.container {
  perspective: 1200px;

Last but not least we add animation to see it spinning.

#cuboid {
  transform-style: preserve-3d;
  transform: translateZ(-100px) rotateX(20deg) rotateY(20deg);
  animation: spinCuboid 5s infinite ease-out;
@keyframes spinCuboid {
  0% { transform: translateZ(-100px) rotateX(0deg) rotateY(0deg); }
  100% { transform: translateZ(-100px) rotateX(360deg) rotateY(360deg); }

Platform independent development with .NET

We develop most of our projects as platform independent applications, usually running under Windows, Mac and Linux. There are exceptions, for example when it is required to communicate with special hardware drivers or third-party libraries or other components that are not available on all platforms. But even then we isolate these parts into interchangeable modules that can be operated either in a simulated mode or with the real thing. The simulated modes are platform independent. Developers usually can work on the code base using their favorite operating system. Of course, it has to be tested on the target platform(s) that the application will run on in the end.

Platform independent development is both a matter of technology choices and programming practices. Concerning the technology the ecosystem based on the Java VM is a proven choice for platform independent development. We have developed many projects in Java and other JVM based languages. All of our developers are polyglots and we are able to develop software with a wide variety of programming languages.

The .NET ecosystem

Until recently the .NET platform has been known to be mainly a Microsoft Windows based ecosystem. The Mono project was started by non-Microsoft developers to provide an open source implementation of .NET for other operating systems, but it never had the same status as Microsoft’s official .NET on Windows.

However, recently Microsoft has changed course: They open sourced their .NET implementation and are porting it to other platforms. They acquired Xamarin, the company behind the Mono project, and they are releasing developer tools such as IDEs for non-Windows platforms.

IDEs for non-Windows platforms

If you want to develop a .NET project on a platform other than Windows you now have several choices for an IDE:

I am currently using JetBrains Rider on a Mac to develop a .NET based application in C#. Since I have used other JetBrains products before it feels very familiar. Xamarin Studio, MonoDevelop, VS for Mac and JetBrains Rider all support the solution and project file format of the original Visual Studio for Windows. This means a .NET project can be developed with any of these IDEs.

Web applications

The .NET application I am developing is based on Web technologies. The server side uses the NancyFX web framework, the client side uses React. Persistence is done with Microsoft’s Entity Framework. All the libraries I need for the project like NancyFX, the Entity Framework, a PostgreSQL driver, JSON.NET, NLog, NUnit, etc. work on non-Windows platforms without any problems.


Development of .NET applications is no longer limited to the Windows platform. Microsoft is actively opening up their development platform for other operating systems.

Arbitrary 2D curves with Highcharts

Highcharts is a versatile JavaScript charting library for the web. The library supports all kinds of charts: scatter plots, line charts, area chart, bar charts, pie charts and more.

A data series of type line or spline connects the points in the order of the x-axis when rendered. It is possible to invert the axes by setting the property inverted: true in the chart options.

var chart = $('#chart').highcharts({
  chart: {
    inverted: true
  series: [{
    name: 'Example',
    type: 'line',
    data: [
      {x: 10, y: 50},
      {x: 20, y: 56.5},
      {x: 30, y: 46.5},
      // ...


Connecting points in an arbitrary order

Connecting the points in an arbitrary order, however, is not supported by default. I couldn’t find a Highcharts plugin which supports this either, so I implemented a solution by modifying the getGraphPath function of the series object:

var series = $('#chart').highcharts().series[0];
var oldGetGraphPath = series.getGraphPath;
Object.getPrototypeOf(series).getGraphPath = function(points, nullsAsZeroes, connectCliffs) {
  points = points || this.points;
  points.sort(function(a, b) {
    return a.sortIndex - b.sortIndex;
  return oldGetGraphPath.call(this, points, nullsAsZeroes, connectCliffs);

The new function sorts the points by a new property called sortIndex before the line path of the chart gets rendered. This new property must be assigned to each point object of the series data:

  {x: 10, y: 50, sortIndex: 1},
  {x: 20, y: 56.5, sortIndex: 2},
  {x: 30, y: 46.5, sortIndex: 3},
  // ...
], true);

Now we can render charts with points connected in an arbitrary order like this:

A line chart with points connected in arbitrary order

A line chart with points connected in arbitrary order

ECMAScript 6 is coming

ECMAScript is the standardized specification of the scripting language that is the basis for JavaScript implementations in web browsers.

ECMAScript 5, which was released in 2009, is in widespread use today. Six years later in 2015 ECMAScript 6 was released, which introduced a lot of new features, especially additions to the syntax.

However, browser support for ES 6 needed some time to catch up.
If you look at the compatibility table for ES 6 support in modern browsers you can see that the current versions of the main browsers now support ES 6. This means that soon you will be able to write ES 6 code without the necessity of a ES6-to-ES5 cross-compiler like Babel.

The two features of ES 6 that will change the way JavaScript code will be written are in my opinion: the new class syntax and the new lambda syntax with lexical scope for ‘this’.

Class syntax

Up to now, if you wanted to define a new type with a constructor and methods on it, you would write something like this:

var MyClass = function(a, b) {
	this.a = a;
	this.b = b;
MyClass.prototype.methodA = function() {
	// ...
MyClass.prototype.methodB = function() {
	// ...
MyClass.prototype.methodC = function() {
	// ...

ES 6 introduces syntax support for this pattern with the class keyword, which makes class definitions shorter and more similar to class definitions in other object-oriented programming languages:

class MyClass {
	constructor(a, b) {
		this.a = a;
		this.b = b;
	methodA() {
		// ...
	methodB() {
		// ...
	methodC() {
		// ...

Arrow functions and lexical this

The biggest annoyance in JavaScript were the scoping rules of this. You always had to remember to rebind this if you wanted to use it inside an anonymous function:

var self = this;
this.numbers.forEach(function(n) {

An alternative was to use the bind method on an anonymous function:

this.numbers.forEach(function(n) {

ES 6 introduces a new syntax for lambdas via the “fat arrow” syntax:

this.numbers.forEach((n) => this.doSomething(n));

These arrow functions do not only preserve the binding of this but are also shorter. Especially if the function body consists of only a single expression. In this case the curly braces and and the return keyword can be omitted:

// ES 5
numbers.filter(function(n) { return isPrime(n); });
// ES 6
numbers.filter((n) => isPrime(n));

Wide-spread support for ECMAScript 6 is just around the corner, it’s time to familiarize yourself with it if you haven’t done so yet. A nice overview of the new features can be found at es6-features.org.

Getting Shibboleth SSO attributes securely to your application

Accounts and user data are a matter of trust. Single sign-on (SSO) can improve the user experience (UX), convenience and security especially if you are offering several web applications often used by the same user. If you do not want to force your users to big vendors offering SSO like google or facebook or do not trust them you can implement SSO for your offerings with open-source software (OSS) like shibboleth. With shibboleth it may be even feasible to join an existing federation like SWITCH, DFN or InCommon thus enabling logins for thousands of users without creating new accounts and login data.

If you are implementing you SSO with shibboleth you usually have to enable your web applications to deal with shibboleth attributes. Shibboleth attributes are information about the authenticated user provided by the SSO infrastructure, e.g. the apache web server and mod_shib in conjunction with associated identity providers (IDP). In general there are two options for access of these attributes:

  1. HTTP request headers
  2. Request environment variables (not to confuse with system environment variables!)

Using request headers should be avoided as it is less secure and prone to spoofing. Access to the request environment depends on the framework your web application is using.

Shibboleth attributes in Java Servlet-based apps

In Java Servlet-based applications like Grails or Java EE access to the shibboleth attributes is really easy as they are provided as request attributes. So simply calling request.getAttribute("AJP_eppn") will provide you the value of the eppn (“EduPrincipalPersonName”) attribute set by shibboleth if a user is authenticated and the attribute is made available. There are 2 caveats though:

  1. Request attributes are prefixed by default with AJP_ if you are using mod_proxy_ajp to connect apache with your servlet container.
  2. Shibboleth attributes are not contained in request.getAttributeNames()! You have to directly access them knowing their name.

Shibboleth attributes in WSGI-based apps

If you are using a WSGI-compatible python web framework for your application you can get the shibboleth attributes from the wsgi.environ dictionary that is part of the request. In CherryPy for example you can use the following code to obtain the eppn:

eppn = cherrypy.request.wsgi_environ['eppn']

I did not find the name of the WSGI environment dictionary clearly documented in my efforts to make shibboleth work with my CherryPy application but after that everything was a bliss.


Accessing shibboleth attributes in a safe manner is straightforward in web environments like Java servlets and Python WSGI applications. Nevertheless, you have to know the above aspects regarding naming and visibility or you will be puzzled by the behaviour of the shibboleth service provider.

Updating from Grails 2.3 to something newer

We are developing, running and maintaining moderately sized Grails web application with > 120 domain classes  since 2008 or Grails 1.0.3. The web application is still in production running on Grails 2.3.8. Just recently we wanted Java 8 support and the usual bugfixes and improvements you get by updating the framework. Since time and budget are very limited (as always…) we decided not to move to 3.x but only to the latest 2.x version. It seemed a safer and easier option and opened up the way to 3.x where many things changed completely.

Trying to go to 2.5.4

The upgrade procedure is generally well documented in Grails. That allowed us to upgrade from 1.0 to 1.3, from 1.3 to 2.2 and finally from 2.2 to 2.3. We skipped 2.0 because of too many problems we faced during the upgrade. As usual the major changes and tasks are mentioned in the upgrade guide. It started smoothly but we finally had to abort the upgrade process because we were bitten by https://github.com/grails/grails-data-mapping/issues/581 . We had not the time to dig fully into it and resolve the issue.

Trying to go to 2.4.5

Many of the changes and improvements and most notably a Groovy version supporting the Java 8 runtime are already available in Grails 2.4.5. So we gave it a shot hoping for fewer problems than with 2.5.4. Actually we got our application running in less than an hour but quite some of our unit, integration and functional tests failed. After finding some advice in http://stackoverflow.com/questions/16532631/grails-unit-test-mock-domain-with-assigned-id we changed our unit tests to use the @Mock() mixin instead of mockDomain() which works in 2.3 and is broken in 2.4.

When trying to fix our integration tests we saw that some of our HQL queries failed. Something was wrong navigating/querying multiple association levels so we finally gave up on this one, too.


Even though we managed to keep our Grails application alive for many years and several framework versions each upgrade carries a significant risk of breakage and requires quite some effort. This time we are stuck again and will have to invest more time to bring the application up-to-date again.

I would advise anyone already using or deciding for Grails as the web framework of choice to start with the latest and greatest release and to budget several person days for upgrades of medium sized projects. The devil is in the details…

The JavaScript ‘console’ Object

Most JavaScript developers are familiar with these basic functions of the console object: console.log(), .info(), .warn() and .error(). These functions dump a string or an object to the JavaScript console.

However, the console object has a lot more to offer. I’ll demonstrate a selection of the additional functionality, which is less known, but can be useful for development and debugging.

Tabular data

Arrays with tabular structure can be displayed with the console.table() function:

var timeseries = [
 {timestamp: new Date('2016-04-01T00:00:00Z'), value: 42, checked: true},
 {timestamp: new Date('2016-04-01T00:15:00Z'), value: 43, checked: true},
 {timestamp: new Date('2016-04-01T00:30:00Z'), value: 43, checked: true},
 {timestamp: new Date('2016-04-01T00:45:00Z'), value: 41, checked: false},
 {timestamp: new Date('2016-04-01T01:00:00Z'), value: 40, checked: false},
 {timestamp: new Date('2016-04-01T01:15:00Z'), value: 39, checked: false}


The browser will render the data in a table view:

Output of console.table()

JavaScript console table output

This function does not only work with arrays of objects, but also with arrays of arrays.


Sometimes you want to benchmark certain sections of your code. You could write your own function using new Date().getTime(), but the functions console.time() and console.timeEnd() are already there:

// code to benchmark

The string parameter is a label to identify the benchmark. The JavaScript console output will look like this:

calculation: 21.460ms

Invocation count

The function console.count() can count how often a certain point in the code is called. Different counters are identified with string labels:

for (var i = 1; i <= 100; i++) {
  if (i % 15 == 0) {
  } else if (i % 3 == 0) {
  } else if (i % 5 == 0) {

Here’s an excerpt of the output:

FizzBuzz: 6 (count-demo.js, line 3)
Fizz: 25 (count-demo.js, line 5)
Buzz: 13 (count-demo.js, line 7)
Fizz: 26 (count-demo.js, line 5)
Fizz: 27 (count-demo.js, line 5)
Buzz: 14 (count-demo.js, line 7)


The console object does not only provide basic log output functionality, but also some lesser-known, yet useful debugging helper functions. The Console API reference describes the full feature set of the console object.