The definition of done

From large to small, from projects to issues, a team needs to define when they are considered done.
This decision differs from team to team, some have steps to done, others just one state. Even the words used in your issue tracker reflect your choices: what does ‘fixed’ mean, what is ‘closed’ used for…
Even some practices like test driven development define a state of done: the code is done if all tests are green and it is refactored.

What’s your definition of done?

Let’s take a look at some examples:

  • tests are green and code is refactored
  • QA says ok
  • customer/stakeholder/product owner accepts the issue
  • developer thinks the code reflects the description in the issue
  • a predefined spec, maybe even with an acceptance test, is fulfilled
  • no bugs were found while clicking through
  • the code is merged with the master branch
  • the continuous integration tool has found no errors

The problem with this ‘definition of done’s is that either they look for an external person to accept by their opinion/guideline or concentrate on some output. But the people needing the software do not want the software in its own regard. They want to reach a goal through the software. The software is a mean to an end: their goals. Without defining the goals and needs beforehand you are either doomed to guess them and are at the mercy of arbitariness (from your point of view) or concentrate on some measurable output like code, tests or a completed feature.

Defining what the user wants to do with this new feature or project should be the first thing in a project right after the initial introductions. Who will use the app or the feature? (the intended audience, the users) What do they expect from it? (the benefits) What goal do they want to reach?
With this questions and answers you have a target. After completing the issues or project you can see if the target has been reached, if the goals are met. It might be the same with an acceptance process from a stakeholder but here you know the target beforehand not after.

Personas: The great misunderstanding

Reminder: What are personas ?

Personas were first described by Alan Cooper in his ground breaking book “The inmates are running the asylum”:

Our most effective tool is profoundly simple: Develop a precise description of our user and what he wishes to accomplish.

He goes on to define personas as “hypothetical archetypes of actual users” and states that personas “are defined by their goals”.
One of the key points here is that personas are never made up but are grounded in research. They are used to provide condensed information about the result of the user research. Another take away is that a persona description should include its goals.

The misunderstanding

In recent times some designers dumped personas because they are 1) imaginary and 2) defined by attributes that leave out causality. The problem here is that personas are often seen as a collection of mere demographic data (like age, job, income, …). But this only describes marketing personas not the personas imagined by Alan Cooper. As seen in his books the data of a persona is never made up but inferred from user research. Also demographics play only a minor role in creating personas, citing Mr. Cooper again:

Personas are segmented along ranges of user behaviour, not demographics or buying behaviour.

So the behaviour of our users defines the persona not any demographic trait.

The causality mentioned in the criticism misses a vital part of a persona: the scenario. Personas go hand-in-hand with scenarios (by Alan Cooper, About Face):

Persona-based scenarios are concise narrative descriptions of one or more personas using a product or service to achieve specific goals.


Scenario content and context are derived from information gathered during the Research phase and analyzed during the Modeling phase

So with these scenarios personas describe the context and the goals and behaviours of our users.

As we see with the criticism the context, goals and motivations of our users are important. Personas and scenarios should not be made up but condensed from research. They are used to say ‘no’ to decisions in the process of designing. A word of warning: do not abstract your persona too far away from your users. One goal of personas are to built empathy. If your personas are too artificial your empathy will suffer. Also I like how Jeff Patton uses research findings: for him they are like vacation photos, if you’ve been there they are reminder what happened.


The criticism largely comes from designers favoring the jobs-to-be-done (JTBD) methodology. Jobs-to-be-done is a framework to analyse and describe why a users hires a product or service to get something done. It provides a very useful perspective on the context and behaviour of users. Both approaches (personas and jobs) can be combined. Where personas provide a human connection, jobs provide a contextual one. Shahrzad Samadzadeh provides a sketch how both can be combined with the help of a journey map. All three methods help to balance each approach: the personas help to avoid making the jobs too analytic, the jobs help to ground and limit the personas in research valuable to the problem at hand and journeys can bring all together.

Mapping the user’s workflow

One of the most important things to understand before starting any design or development is the user’s workflow(s). A user uses your app to reach a goal. His starting point is the start of the workflow. His goal its end. He takes steps in order to get from the start to his goal.
The order and the type of steps he takes helps us to understand how he reaches his goals at the moment. Visualizing these steps, often called mapping, is a great way to see the system from the user’s perspective: what does he do with the system, how and when does he do it.
This workflow helps us to keep the big picture in mind and organise planning and execution around the important part of the project: the user goals.

How does a workflow look?

Use the visualization or tool that suits you most. A workflow can be a sketch of boxes and arrows. Or an excel sheet. You can use a diagramming software or a presentation software. The important point is that you see the start, the goals and the steps and can annotate each step with important details.

How can we create the workflow

A workflow describes a series of actions. When the system supports the user to get from his start to his goal our application does its job. The user experience is how efficient and pleasant it is for the user to take each step.
One way to find out about the steps the user takes is to observe him doing so. At first: try to only watch and listen. Take notes. Be open. Record each step as if you were a beginner knowing nothing about the system or how the software works or should work. Especially watch out for the struggles.
Struggles can be seen in:

  • mistakes
  • back steps
  • pauses
  • changing applications
  • repeated steps

The struggles give us a hint where to put our energy. In the second run keep an eye open for unusual steps. Unusual steps are actions which seem complicated or unnecessary from a beginner’s mind. Start with the notion that every step is needed but find out the reasons why it is. In subsequent observations look for variations and ask what information lead the user to decide differently this time.
Armed with your recordings you can now sketch the first version of what you understood about how the user reaches his goal using the current systems.

What UX and sales have in common

In the past sales has often been disregarded. But modern sales is more like UX. The goal of modern sales is to bring a positive impact to both the seller and the buyer. This is called a win-win. Both parties win.
Shortcuts or favors result in one party losing which is not a sustainable strategy.
For the buying to be winning a seller has to care about the needs of the buyer. These needs range from jobs to be done to personal ones. As a seller you employ UX research methods like interviews and open questions targeting the thoughts and feelings of the buyer. The wins are always personal never something abstract like a company strategy or even KPIs. But: the wins are based upon result: measurable, objective things like conversion rates, efficiency improvements, closed sales. Together they are called win-results: an objective metric that has a personal benefit for the buyer.

Assumptions in UX can be dangerous and can doom a whole product. Assuming win-results or the wrong needs you can miss the buyer completely and lose the sale. In strategic sales every uncertain or missing information or contact is regarded as a red flag. UX should also mark its blind spots. The product kata is a great way to eliminate assumptions in a project.

But even if you know the needs you have to take into account the context. The personal and emotional situation a buyer is in has direct consequences for how you need to address him. The same with UX where context and the job to be done control your solutions – what works and what not.

If you are interested in a more person centered sales strategy I recommend reading strategic selling and following blogs like Seth Godin and Bernadette Jiwa

Discount UX

Creating a better user experience does not need to be expensive, you don’t need fancy tools like eye tracking or facial expression detection to make a difference. Here are some tools I use to get a better understanding of what users need.


The universal tool to communicate besides words are sketches. Whether I draw an idea for a user interface, use a state diagram to discuss transitions or draw boxes and arrows to show connections, sketches at the heart of everyday working and thinking. What you need for this? Paper and a pencil.


In order to understand a human using your system you not only need to talk to him but you have to observe him doing his work. This is not just playing the fly on the wall. These sessions are interactive in nature, resulting in a back and forth. The user shows you how he works, you ask questions, he goes into more detail, you wonder about certain points, he explain his reasoning (or sometimes has wonders himself). Again paper and pencil is great. Having the option to take screenshots or (permission provided) a photo is even better. The most crucial is an open mind. You need to go in with a beginner’s mind: do not assume anything and wonder about almost everything.

Card sort

Observation is a pretty direct way to learn about the user doing his work. But even then some part of the mental model is hidden. To dig deeper into what kind of concepts and words he uses and how these are interrelated, a card sorting session can be helpful. Together with him we draw those words onto cards and let him sort them into groups and give them priorities. Here often discussions arise about the exact words you write on the paper. Some words need to be in more than one group, two different words mean the same, another word means something different in a different context. Here you also can take a glimpse at (sub-)domain bounds. Again cards, a pencil and paper to take notes is all you need.

Design studio or crazy 8

Sketching is so helpful you can do it even in a group. If you need to brainstorm for a user interface you take a sheet of paper and divide into 8 sections. Then you draw 8 very simple sketchy version of the UI in 8 – 16 minutes. After that you evaluate them in the group against your goals. The first round produces divergent sketches after seeing each other drawings, you will see that the next round converges into a common direction. You probably guessed it already: paper and a pencil is all you need.

Paper Journey Mapping

The last one in this group is more of an analyzing and communicating results tool. A journey map is a way to show the user (his thoughts, feelings and actions) along the steps he takes in his daily work. This map can highlight different aspects of your findings: the many applications he has to use to get his job done, the critical parts which mostly affect his mood, the frustrations, the many points for failure, the different people involved and so on. A large (DIN A3 or bigger) piece of paper is helpful and different colors of pencils help to highlight aspects.


All these methods use (almost only) pen and paper but are very helpful in getting to a better user understanding and therefore a better user experience. What are your tools for understanding?
If you have any questions or need more details please feel free to comment. I am at the starting point of the user experience journey and like to learn from others.

Displaying numbers in tables

Many software applications have to display series of numbers, for example statistical information, measurement values or financial data. Of course there are many ways to visualize values graphically with charts, but sometimes the user wants to see the actual values as numbers. The typical layout method to display numbers are tables.

Here are some guidelines you should follow when you have to display numbers in a table.

Integer numbers

Right aligned integer numbers

Right-aligned integer numbers

Integer numbers that are shown in a table column should be right-aligned, because the orders of magnitude of a number’s digits increase from right to left. Additionally you should choose a font with fixed-width digits for numbers. This ensures that digits with the same orders of magnitude line up. Thus the numbers can be compared more easily. The font itself doesn’t have to be a fixed-width font in general. Some proportional fonts with variable widths for letters have fixed-widths for digits, called tabular figures.

Non-integer numbers

Aligned with decimal points

Aligned with decimal points

Non-integer numbers with decimal points should be aligned with their decimal points. The reason is the same as above: digits with the same orders of magnitude should line up. This can be a bit more effort to implement in your application than mere right-alignment, because components such as UI widgets or HTML tables usually don’t directly support this form of alignment.

However, you can implement it by using a font with tabular figures and then right-pad the numbers with spaces. Each of these spaces must have the same width as a digit, of course. This is the case with a fixed-width font, but there is also a special Unicode character for this purpose that can be used with proportional fonts and tabular figures: it’s called figure space and has the Unicode code point U+2007.

Getting better at programming without coding

Almost two decades ago one of the programming books was published that had a big impact on my thinking as a software engineer: the pragmatic programmer. Most of the tips and practices are still fundamental to my work. If you haven’t read it, give it a try.
Over the years I refined some practices and began to get a renewed focus on additional topics. One of the most important topics of the original tips and of my profession is to care and think about my craft.
In this post I collected a list of tips and practices which helped and still help me in my daily work.

Think about production

Since I develop software to be used, thinking early about the production environment is key.

Deploy as early as possible
Deployment should be a non event. Create an automatic deployment process to keep it that way and deploy as early as possible to remove the risk from unpleasant surprises.

Master should always be deployable
Whether you use master or another branch, you need a branch which could always be deployed without risk.

Self containment
Package (as many as possible of) your dependencies into your deployment. Keep the surprises of missing repositories or dependencies to a minimum of none.

Use real data in development
Real data has characteristics, gaps and inconsistencies you cannot imagine. During development use real data to experience problems before they get into production.

No data loss
Deploying should not result in a loss of data. Your application should shutdown gracefully. Often deployment deletes the directory or uses a fresh place. No files or state in memory should be used as persistence by the application. Applications should be stateless processes.

If anything goes wrong or the new deployed application has a serious bug you need to revert it to the last version. Make rollback a requirement.

No user interruption
Users work with your application. Even if they do not lose data or their current work when you deploy, they do not like surprises.

Separate one off tasks
Software should be running and available to the user. Do not delay startup with one off admin tasks like migration, cache warm-up or search index creation. Make your application start in seconds.

Manage your runs
Problems, performance degradation and bugs should be visible. Monitor your key metrics, log important things and detect problems in the application’s data. Make it easy to combine, search and graph your recordings.

Make it easy to reproduce
When a bug occurs or your user has a problem, you need to follow the steps how the system arrived at its current state. Store their actions so that they can be easily replayed.

Think about users

Software is used by people. In order to craft successful applications I have to consider what these people need.

No requirements, just jobs
Users use the software to get stuff done. Features and requirements confuse solutions with problems. Understand in what situation the user is and what he needs to get to his goal. This is the job you need to support.

Work with the user
In order to help the user with your software I need to relate to his situation. Observing, listening, talking to and working along him helps you see his struggles and where software can help.

Speak their language
Users think and speak in their domain. Not in the domain of software. When you want to help them, you and the user interface of your software needs to speak like a user, not like a software.

Value does not come from effort
The most important things your software does are not the ones which need the most effort. Your users value things which help them the most. Find these.

Think about modeling

A model is at the core of your software. Every system has a state. How you divide and manage this state is crucial to evolving and understanding your creation.

Use the language of the domain
In your core you model concepts from the user’s domain. Name them accordingly and reasoning about them and with the users is easier.

Everything has one purpose
Divide your model by the purpose of its parts.

Separate read from write
You won’t get the model right from the start. It is easier to evolve the model if read and write operations have their own model. You can even have different read models for different use cases. (see also CQRS and Turning the database inside out)

Different parts evolve at different speeds
Not all parts of a model are equal. Some stand still, some change frequently. Some are specified, about some others you learn step by step. Some need to be constant, some need to be experimented with. Separating parts by its changing speed will help you deal with change.

Favor immutability
State is hard. State is needed. Isolating state helps you understand a running system. Isolating state helps you remove coupling.

Keep it small
Reasoning about a large system is complicated. Keep effects at bay and models small. Separating and isolating things gives you a chance to overview the whole system.

Think about approaches

Getting to all this is a journey.

When thinking use all three dimensions
Constraining yourself to a computer screen for thinking deprives you of one of your best thinking tools: spatial reasoning. Use whiteboards, walls, paper and more to remove the boundaries from your thoughts.

Crazy 8
Usually you think in your old ways. Getting out of your (mental) box is not easy. Crazy 8 is a method to create 8 solutions (sketches for UI) in a very short time frame.

Suspend judgement
As a programmer you are fast to assess proposals and solutions. Don’t do that. Learn to suspend your judgement. Some good ideas are not so obvious, you will kill them with your judgement.

Get out
Thinking long and hard about a problem can put you into blindfold mode. After stating the problem, get out. Take a walk. Do not actively think or talk about the problem. This simulates the “shower effect”: getting the best ideas when you do not actively think about the problem.

Assume nothing
Assumptions bear risks. They can make your project fail. Approach your project with what is certain. Choose your direction to explore and find your assumptions. Each assumption is an obstacle, an question that needs an answer. Ask your users. Design hypotheses and experiments to proof them. (see From agile to UX for a detailed approach)

Another way to find blind spots in your thinking is to frame for failure. Construct a scenario in which your project is failed. Then reason about what made it fail. Where are your biggest risks? (see How to map your fears for details)

MVA – Minimum, valuable action
Every step, every experiment should be as lightweight as possible. Do not craft a beautiful prototype if a sketch would suffice. Choose the most efficient method to get further to your goal.

Put it into a time box
When you need to experiment, constrain it. Define a time in which you want to have an answer. You do not need to go the whole way to get an impression.