Ten books that shaped me as a software developer – Part I (Books 0 to 4)

Last week, I’ve done a question and answers event with students when the question came up what the most influential books were that I have read as a software developer. I couldn’t answer the question right away but promised to compile the list with short descriptions of the book’s influence. And here it is – my list of books that left a big mark in my day-to-day work. Others have done the list of books thing before me, and most lists contain the same books over and over again. I take it as an indicator that my list isn’t too far off.

Prologue

Before I start the list, I want to say a few things. The list isn’t ordered or ranked. I describe the effects of each book from my current standpoint, sometimes 20 years after the fact. I read a lot more good, interesting and inspiring books in the last 20 years and they all added to my work personality. But with all the books on my list, I felt enlightened and vibrant with new ideas. They didn’t just inspire me, they elevated my thinking. And because of this criteria of immediate improvement, one book is missing from the list. It’s the first “serious” software development book I’ve ever read in 1998: “Design Patterns. The book was just too much for me (and my study group peers) to handle such early in our careers. We were in our first year of study and had a lot of other battles to fight. I crossed it from my reading list and moved on. Years later, I re-read it and saw so much insight I plainly missed the first time, but gathered elsewhere since. If you want to read this classic, don’t hesitate! If you “only” want to know about design patterns, there’s a better book for that: “Head First Design Patterns“.

The Pragmatic Programmer

https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/41BKx1AxQWL._SX396_BO1,204,203,200_.jpgMore by chance, my co-founder stumbled upon “The Pragmatic Programmer” in 1999 and devoured it. Then he gave the book to me and it shattered me to my core. I thought I was a decent software developer and here are Dave Thomas and Andy Hunt and talk about things I didn’t even knew existed. A healthy dose of Dunning-Kruger effect is crucial in everybody’s upbringing, but this book ended my overestimation once and for all and gave my studies a focus and direction I wouldn’t have thought to be possible before. I own my whole career to this book, at least in terms of work ethics. I cannot fathom how my professional life would have played out otherwise.

Refactoring

https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/51K-M5hR8qL._SX392_BO1,204,203,200_.jpg

Also in 1999, Martin Fowler wrote his instant classic “Refactoring“. We bought this book at the first chance we got and raced through the pages. I was a Java developer back then and with most of the examples being in Java, the book needed no explanation nor translation. It was directly applicable knowledge that gave me years of experience virtually for free. This book is a must-read even 20 years later, and has just recently had the second edition announced, this time with code examples in JavaScript. I thought it was a joke first, but I guess it makes sense.

Working Effectively With Legacy Code

https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/51EgCCLOWxL._SX376_BO1,204,203,200_.jpgIn 2004, Michael Feathers wrote a book that contains his 20+ years of experience with software development and named it “Working Effectively With Legacy Code“. Well, joke’s on you – I don’t write legacy code, my code is perfect. That wasn’t my attitude since 1999 (see list entry #1) and I took this book everywhere. It’s a heavy one, but I read it in the tram, right before the movie starts in cinema, during breakfast, lunch and dinner and virtually any other circumstance. I realized that reading this book will gain me experience a lot faster than actually writing code, so I just stopped for a few weeks. This book answered a lot of mysteries in the form of “is there really no better way to do this?” for me. And it introduced the concept of code seams for me that permeates my work ever since. I can clearly remember the day when I looked at my existing code again and saw the seams for the first time. It was truly eye-opening for me.

Analysis Patterns

https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/41uNHkTq8NL._SX378_BO1,204,203,200_.jpgMartin Fowler was a very productive author in the late nineties. I’ve read most of his books from this period, if maybe with a few years delay. “Analysis Patterns” from 1996 arrived in my bookshelf in the early 2000’s and was my wake-up call to seeing models instead of actualities. I’ve given this book to many peers, but haven’t received the reactions that I had with this book: Being taught a language (with a graphical notation) that can express actual problems in terms of an overarching solution. Since then, I’ve seen the same solutions applied in many different forms, with many different names and a lot of different special requirements. But they all derive from the same model. This effect was promised by the “Design Patterns” book, but for me, delivered by “Analysis Patterns”. Even Martin Fowler admits that the book is showing its age, but for me, its timeless.

Peopleware

https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/51MlUgcSICL._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_.jpgSince the late 80’s, Tom DeMarco and Timothy Lister wrote one book after the other. Each book describes a common business-oriented problem and at least one working solution for it. And yet, the very same problems still persist in the business world. It’s as if nobody reads books. “Peopleware” was written in 1987, 30 years ago, and discovered by me and my peers in the late 1990’s. We talked about this book a lot, as it described a (business) world where we didn’t want to work in. We wanted to do better. In a way, this book was a spark to found our own company and don’t repeat the mistakes that seemed to be prevalent in our industry. If you’ve ever shaken your head about “the management”, do yourself a favor and read this book. It will pinpoint the precise problem you’ve felt and give you the words to describe it. And if you’ve read “Peopleware”, liked it and want more, there is good news: There is a whole series waiting for you (not just Vienna).

Epilogue to Part I

These are the first five books from my list, with the last entry being more of a catch-all for a whole series. Remember that this isn’t a generic “go and read these books if you want to call yourself a professional software developer” list. I’m not gatekeeping and it would be useless to even try to do so. These books helped me further my career in the last 20 years, they won’t necessarily help you for the next 20 years. Good books are published every year, you just have to read them.

I’m looking forward to share the second part of my list in the next blog post of this series. Stay tuned!

uninitialized_tag in C++

No doubt, C++ is one of those languages you can use to squeeze out every last drop of your CPU’s processing power. On the other hand, it also allows a high amount of abstraction. However, micro-optimization seldom works well with nice abstractions.

The dilemma

One such case is the matter of default-initialization with “math types”, such as three-dimensional vectors used in computer graphics. Do you let your default constructor zero initialize by default or do you leave the elements uninitialized and risk undefined behavior?

One way around this dilemma is to use tag dispatching to enable both:

template <class T> struct v3 {
  v3(T v={}) : x{v}, y{v}, z{v} {}
  v3(uninitialized_tag) {}
  T x,y,z;
};

Now a v3 zero-initializes by default, while you can still avoid the initialization costs by calling it with:

v3<float>{uninitialized_tag{}};

Drawbacks

This approach is not without drawbacks. It’s a bit of an uphill battle to find a good test for this. You need to overwrite the values before you use them, or the compiler is free to do whatever it wants when you use them. It’d be undefined behavior. But you also do not want it to figure out that you are overwriting all the values – because in that case, it can optimize out the zero-initialization anyways.
It does work for a few simple cases though, and you scan see the zero-initialization getting removed, e.g. in the compiler explorer.

However, it will often not let you do what you set out to do – leave some some vectors uninitialized. Consider this:

std::vector<v3<float>> v(N, uninitialized_tag{});

This does not, in fact, transport the uninitialized_tag to the v3 constructor. It first converts the tag to a v3, and then uses that value to initialize all the other N elements with the uninitialized data. This is actually a lot of copying, and creates a whole lot more code than the zero initialization would have. You can get this to work with a container that uses the given initializer value to initialize the elements without converting first. You’re probably better of with a mechanism like the std::vector::reserve that essentially gives you the ability to leave elements uninitialized.

Conclusion

This is a very specialized method for very few niche cases, and you need to carefully select your infrastructure to see any gain that cannot be achieved by simpler means. Use with caution!

Integrating .NET projects with Gradle

Recently I have created Gradle build scripts for several .NET projects, bot C# and VB.NET projects. Projects for the .NET platform are usually built with MSBuild, which is part of the .NET Framework distribution and itself a full-blown build automation tool: you can define build targets, their dependencies and execute tasks to reach the build targets. I have written about the basics of MSBuild in a previous blog post.

The .NET projects I was working on were using MSBuild targets for the various build stages as well. Not only for building and testing, but also for the release and deployment scripts. These scripts were called from our Jenkins CI with the MSBuild Jenkins Plugin.

Gradle plugins

However, I wasn’t very happy with MSBuild’s clunky Ant-like XML based syntax, and for most of our other projects we are using Gradle nowadays. So I tried Gradle for a new .NET project. I am using the Gradle MSBuild and Gradle NUnit plugins. Of course, the MSBuild Gradle plugin is calling MSBuild, so I don’t get rid of MSBuild completely, because Visual Studio’s .csproj and .vbproj project files are essentially MSBuild scripts, and I don’t want to get rid of them. So there is one Gradle task which to calls MSBuild, but everything else beyond the act of compilation is automated with regular Gradle tasks, like copying files, zipping release artifacts etc.

Basic usage of the MSBuild plugin looks like this:

plugins {
  id "com.ullink.msbuild" version "2.18"
}

msbuild {
  // either a solution file
  solutionFile = 'DemoSolution.sln'
  // or a project file (.csproj or .vbproj)
  projectFile = file('src/DemoSoProject.csproj')

  targets = ['Clean', 'Rebuild']

  destinationDir = 'build/msbuild/bin'
}

The plugin offers lots of additional options, be sure to check out the documentation on Github. If you want to give the MSBuild step its own task name, which is currently not directly mentioned on the Github page, use the task type Msbuild from the package com.ullink:

import com.ullink.Msbuild

// ...

task buildSolution(type: 'Msbuild', dependsOn: '...') {
  // ...
}

Since the .NET projects I’m working on use NUnit for unit testing, I’m using the NUnit Gradle plugin by the same creator as well. Again, please consult the documentation on the Github page for all available options. What I found necessary was setting the nunitHome option, because I don’t want the plugin to download a NUnit release from the internet, but use the one that is included with our project. Also, if you want a task with its own name or multiple testing tasks, use the NUnit task type in the package com.ullink.gradle.nunit:

import com.ullink.gradle.nunit.NUnit

// ...

task test(type: 'NUnit', dependsOn: 'buildSolution') {
  nunitVersion = '3.8.0'
  nunitHome = "${project.projectDir}/packages/NUnit.ConsoleRunner.3.8.0/tools"
  testAssemblies = ["${project.projectDir}/MyProject.Tests/bin/Release/MyProject.Tests.dll"]
}
test.dependsOn.remove(msbuild)

With Gradle I am now able to share common build tasks, for example for our release process, with our other non .NET projects, which use Gradle as well.

Analyzing gradle projects using SonarQube without gradle plugin

SonarQube makes static code analysis easy for a plethora of languages and environments. In many of our newer projects we use gradle as our buildsystem and jenkins as our continuous integration server. Integrating sonarqube in such a setup can be done in a couple of ways, the most straightforward being

  • Integrating SonarQube into your gradle build and invoke the gradle script in jenkins
  • Letting jenkins invoke the gradle build and execute the SonarQube scanner

I chose the latter one because I did not want to add further dependencies to the build process.

Configuration of the SonarQube scanner

The SonarQube scanner must be configured by property file called sonar-project.properties by default:

# must be unique in a given SonarQube instance
sonar.projectKey=domain:project
# this is the name and version displayed in the SonarQube UI. Was mandatory prior to SonarQube 6.1.
sonar.projectName=My cool project
sonar.projectVersion=23

sonar.sources=src/main/java
sonar.tests=src/test/java
sonar.java.binaries=build/classes/java/main
sonar.java.libraries=../lib/**/*.jar
sonar.java.test.libraries=../lib/**/*.jar
sonar.junit.reportPaths=build/test-results/test/
sonar.jacoco.reportPaths=build/jacoco/test.exec

sonar.modules=application,my_library,my_tools

# Encoding of the source code. Default is default system encoding
sonar.sourceEncoding=UTF-8
sonar.java.source=1.8

sonar.links.ci=http://${my_jenkins}/view/job/MyCoolProject
sonar.links.issue=http://${my_jira}/browse/MYPROJ

After we have done that we can submit our project to the SonarQube scanner using the jenkins SonarQube plugin and its “Execute SonarQube Scanner” build step.

Optional: Adding code coverage to our build

Even our gradle-based projects aim to be self-contained. That means we usually do not use repositories like mavenCentral for our dependencies but store them all in a lib directory along the project. If we want to add code coverage to such a project we need to add jacoco in the version corresponding to the jacoco-gradle-plugin to our libs in build.gradle:

allprojects {
    apply plugin: 'java'
    apply plugin: 'jacoco'
    sourceCompatibility = 1.8

    jacocoTestReport {
        reports {
            xml.enabled true
        }
        jacocoClasspath = files('../lib/org.jacoco.core-0.7.9.jar',
            '../lib/org.jacoco.report-0.7.9.jar',
            '../lib/org.jacoco.ant-0.7.9.jar',
            '../lib/asm-all-5.2.jar'
        )
    }
}

Gotchas

Our jenkins build job consists of 2 steps:

  1. Execute gradle
  2. Submit project to SonarQube’s scanner

By default gradle stops execution on failure. That means later tasks like jacocoTestReport are not executed if a test fails. We need to invoke gradle with the --continue switch to always run all of our tasks.

Some tricks for working with SVG in JavaScript

Scalable vector graphics (SVG) is a part of the document object model (DOM) and thus can be modified just like any other DOM node from JavaScript. But SVG has some pitfalls like having its own coordinate system and different style attributes which can be a headache. What follows is a non comprehensive list of hints and tricks which I found helpful while working with SVG.

Coordinate system

From screen coordinates to SVG

function screenToSVG(svg, x, y) { // svg is the svg DOM node
  var pt = svg.createSVGPoint();
  pt.x = x;
  pt.y = y;
  var cursorPt = pt.matrixTransform(svg.getScreenCTM().inverse());
  return {x: Math.floor(cursorPt.x), y: Math.floor(cursorPt.y)}
}

From SVG coordinates to screen

function svgToScreen(element) {
  var rect = element.getBoundingClientRect();
  return {x: rect.left, y: rect.top, width: rect.width, height: rect.height};
}

Zooming and panning

Getting the view box

function viewBox(svg) {
    var box = svg.getAttribute('viewBox');
    return {x: parseInt(box.split(' ')[0], 10), y: parseInt(box.split(' ')[1], 10), width: parseInt(box.split(' ')[2], 10), height: parseInt(box.split(' ')[3], 10)};
};

Zooming using the view box

function zoom(svg, initialBox, factor) {
  svg.setAttribute('viewBox', initialBox.x + ' ' + initialBox.y + ' ' + initialBox.width / factor + ' ' + initialBox.height / factor);
}

function zoomFactor(svg) {
  var height = parseInt(svg.getAttribute('height').substring(0, svg.getAttribute('height').length - 2), 10);
  return 1.0 * viewBox(svg).height / height;
}

Panning (with zoom factor support)

function pan(svg, panX, panY) {
  var pos = viewBox(svg);
  var factor = zoomFactor(svg);
  svg.setAttribute('viewBox', (pos.x - factor * panX) + ' ' + (pos.y - factor * panY) + ' ' + pos.width + ' ' + pos.height);
}

Misc

Embedding HTML

function svgEmbedHTML(width, height, html) {
    var svg = document.createElementNS("http://www.w3.org/2000/svg", "foreignObject");
    svg.setAttribute('width', '' + width);
    svg.setAttribute('height', '' + height);
    var body = document.createElementNS('http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml', 'body');
    body.style.background = 'none';
    svg.appendChild(body);
    body.appendChild(html);
    return svg;
}

Making an invisible rectangular click/touch area

function addTouchBackground(svgRoot) {
    var rect = svgRect(0, 0, '100%', '100%');
    rect.style.fillOpacity = 0.01;
    root.appendChild(rect);
}

Using groups as layers

This one needs an explanation. The render order of the svg children depends on the order in the DOM: the last one in the DOM is rendered last and thus shows above all others. If you want to have certain elements below or above others I found it helpful to use groups in svg and add to them.

function svgGroup(id) {
    var group = document.createElementNS('http://www.w3.org/2000/svg', 'g');
    if (id) {
        group.setAttribute('id', id);
    }
    return group;
}

// and later on:
document.getElementById(id).appendChild(yourElement);

Recap of the Schneide Dev Brunch 2018-02-11

brunch64-borderedOn Sunday, February 11th, we held another Schneide Dev Brunch, a regular brunch on the second sunday of every other (even) month, only that all attendees want to talk about software development and various other topics. This brunch was well-attended, with two new guests that seemed to feel comfortable after just a few minutes. The table provided just enough space for us. As usual, the main theme was that if you bring a software-related topic along with your food, everyone has something to share. Because we were a larger group, we discussed with an agenda. As usual, a lot of topics and chatter were exchanged. This recapitulation tries to highlight the main topics of the brunch, but cannot reiterate everything that was spoken. If you were there, you probably find this list inconclusive:

Asciidoctor

Our first topic was a presentation of the asciidoc syntax and the asciidoctor converter. The asciidoc syntax can be used to describe structured textual content in a concise manner with a few funny special characters. It looks like markdown at the first glance, but has the benefit of being fully standardized and extensible instead of one of several competing dialects.

The asciidoctor is an active rewrite of the first asciidoc converter. Given the right set of formatters, you can generate a PDF, a self-contained interactive HTML presentation and a static web page from one single source. This follows the “one true source, many derived artifacts”-approach that every software developer should know by heart (Don’t Repeat Yourself!).

Because setting up a productive asciidoctor environment is still some manual work, one of our attendees has published a github repository that automates the manual work as much as possible: asciidoc presentation.

If you need an alternative to markdown or even TeX/LaTeX, have a look at asciidoc. It seems specifically aimed at software developers and is probably already integrated in your favorite IDE (the integration in IntelliJ is seamless).

Yarn

We discussed the two extreme approaches to handle dependencies for your project. The first extreme is to only include links to other projects/repositories that need to be fetched manually or automatically. Most modern build tools orientate towards this approach, even if there are some disadvantages like the recent Go/Github disturbance.

The second extreme is to include everything that’s needed in your repository. For a Javascript project that means that you provide your own, probably out-dated version of leftpad and thousand other libraries. You need a way to deal with transitive dependencies and keep an eye on all the versions to mitigate the risk of long-fixed vulnerabilities.

The second extreme is extremely helpful if you don’t have internet access but want to develop.

A good compromise is the local offline mirror, something that build tools/dependency managers like maven have for over a decade. This local repository is filled with all the leftpads and apache-commons that your projects need. If you checkout a new project, remember to make the build tool download the dependencies to your local repository before you go offline.

for Javascript, this concept seems a bit foreign. Who would develop for the web without the web, anyways? Yarn seems to provide a working offline mirror functionality for npm packages, though. Perhaps it is worth a look.

Opt-Out explained with groceries

During out dependency management discussion, we also compared downloadable installers with malware droppers. But that’s not where our comparisons stopped. We also came up with a good metaphor for Opt-In vs. Opt-Out methods.

If you enter a grocery store and grab a shopping cart, only to find that it already contains two or three packages of sweets and some overpriced milk, you chose an Opt-Out store. Your responsibility is to return the goods to their aisle or to buy them.

You’re probably used to Opt-In type grocery stores.

Book review: Functional Programming in Java

We took a look at Pierre-Yves Saumont’s book “Functional Programming in Java”. This book is a little bit odd in that you shouldn’t read it, you are meant to program it. Or at least try to solve the numerous training exercises and riddles. This makes it hard to read the paper version of the book, because it’s a pick-two situation of keyboard, mouse and book on your desk.

The book explains real functional programming and not the functional additions of Java 8. It explains it on top of the JVM, using Java’s language constructs. But, you will learn it from the origins and develop abstractions like Function oder Supplier yourself. Imagine you had all compiler magic of Java 8 but no JDK classes to leverage it – this book tells you how to use it.

It’s a good book, but unique in its style. It grounds on exercises and your own understanding of the material. It isn’t spoon-fed, you have to work for it yourself. It didn’t chose any existing pure functional language, but plain Java for this. So you have no excuse about weird syntax or unfamiliar ecosystems. It’s boring old Java turned in an exciting new way.

And if you are lazy and don’t feel like writing your own functional groundwork toolkit, you might want to look at vavr, a functional programming library for Java.

Polyglot language idioms

We discussed the portability of language idioms and highlighted the Curiously Recurring Template Pattern (CRTP) from C++. Then we spent some time explaining and understanding the CRTP and finally comparing it to similar things like Java’s Enum<E extends Enum<E>>. It can get wicked complex fast with those constructs.

Laser printer identification

Since 2011, we know that every single page of a color laser printer can be individually identified and traced back to your printer. This is common knowledge as stated on Wikipedia, but it still was a surprise to some of us. Why do we need such tracking? On request of many goverments.

Spectre and Meltdown

We didn’t repeat the fresh common knowledge about the nearly universal CPU security vulnaribilities Meltdown and Spectre. But we noted that it got eerily quiet, as if everybody holds their breath and waits for the morning clock to wake them up.

Some rumors has it that the current prototypes of ARM and Intel CPUs are not vulnerable, as if the manufacturers changed their speculative code execution unit long before the exploits came to light. Maybe they circumvented the problem by pure luck?

We hope to hit snooze soon.

Planned obsolescence

We discussed the notion of planned obsolescence. Typical consumer products have a flaw or weakness that is bound to break soon after manufacturer guarantee is void. Or it is deliberately incorporated into the product like page counters, waste tanks with limited capacity or the infamous short-lived light bulb.

A good start on the topic is the documentary “buy it for the waste” or “Kaufen für die Müllhalde” on german.

Given the recent noise around Apple battery life, we are now in an era where planned obsolescence is sold like a feature. Twenty-five years ago, this was Science Fiction. The author of this blog entry remembers a science fiction story by Robert Sheckley (“Utopia mit kleinen Fehlern” or “A Ticket to Tranai” in english). The protagonist reaches a planet that seems to be perfect. It is so perfect that nothing breaks anymore. The industry is desperate and sees the protagonist as a genius when he invents “planned obsolescence” and “designed discomfort” as means to raise sales. The planet has several other flaws as well. The story and the whole book is worthwhile and right on topic.

Book review (again): Clean Architecture

At last, we spoke about Robert C. Martin’s (Uncle Bob’s) new book “Clean Architecture”. I’ve already published my book review on our blog, but added some impressions and context after thinking about the book for some more time. Summary: The book is good, even if nearly half the pages might qualify as filler material and there are only two main messages. If the announcement of Uncle Bob on the last page in the Appendix becomes true, you might want to skip his next book, though.

Another book review for the future might be the new Effective Java, 3rd edition.

Epilogue

As usual, the Dev Brunch contained a lot more chatter and talk than listed here. The number of attendees makes for an unique experience every time. We are looking forward to the next Dev Brunch at the Softwareschneiderei in April. We even have some topics still on the agenda (like a report about first-hand experiences with the programming language Rust). And as always, we are open for guests and future regulars. Just drop us a notice and we’ll invite you over next time.

Oversimplified C++ Project FAQ 2018

If you are starting a new C++ project, you’re faced with a few difficult decisions. C++ is not a ‘batteries-included’ language, so you need to pick a few technologies before you can start.
Yet worse, the answer to most of the pressing questions is often ‘it depends’ and changing one of the choices mid-project can be very expensive.
Therefore, I have compiled this list to give totally biased and oversimplified to the most important questions. If you want more nuanced answers, feel free to do your own research.
This is meant to be a somewhat amusing starting point.

FAQ

1. Which OS should I pick?

Linux

Rationale

Usually, not a choice you can make yourself – but if you do: dependency management is easier with a package manager, and it seems to be the most dominant OS in the C++ community. Hence you will get the best support and easiest access to technologies.

2. Which build system should I use?

CMake

Rationale

This is what everyone else is using, and those that are not are a real pain. For better or worse, the market is locked in. With target based properties in modern CMake, it’s not even that bad.

3. Which IDE should I choose?

Visual Studio 2017 on Windows, CLion everywhere else.

Rationale

CLion is getting more robust and feature rich with every release. Native CMake support and really cool refactoring capabilities finally make this a valid contender to Visual Studio’s crown. However, the VS debugger is still the best in the game, so VS still comes out on top on Windows – tho not by a huge margin.

4. Which Language version should you use?

C++14

Rationale

C++17 is not quite there yet with library, tool and platform support. Also, people do not really know how to use it well yet. C++14 builds on the now well-established C++11, which a few rather important “fixes” – and support is ubiquitous.

5. Which GUI toolkit should you use?

Qt

Rationale

No other toolkit comes close in maturity. Qt’s signal/slot system almost seamlessly integrates with C++11 lambdas, making the precompile step needed for SLOTs a non-issue. Barring the license costs for closed-source projects, there is really no reason not to use it.

6. Should you use Boost?

No

Rationale

Boost is a huge and clunky dependency that will explode your build times as soon as you even touch it. And it’s ‘viral’ enough that you can distinguish a Boost project from a non-Boost project. Boost.Optional, Boost.Variant and Boost.Filesystem prepare you for a smooth transition to C++17, but there are other more lightweight alternatives available.

Closing thoughts

There you have my totally biased opinion but hopefully entertaining. YMWV, but I think this is a good starting point if you don’t want to exeriment too much.