Integration Tests with CherryPy and requests

CherryPy is a great way to write simple http backends, but there is a part of it that I do not like very much. While there is a documented way of setting up integration tests, it did not work well for me for a couple of reasons. Mostly, I found it hard to integrate with the rest of the test suite, which was using unittest and not py.test. Failing tests would apparently “hang” when launched from the PyCharm test explorer. It turned out the tests were getting stuck in interactive mode for failing assertions, a setting which can be turned off by an environment variable. Also, the “requests” looked kind of cumbersome. So I figured out how to do the tests with the fantastic requests library instead, which also allowed me to keep using unittest and have them run beautifully from within my test explorer.

The key is to start the CherryPy server for the tests in the background and gracefully shut it down once a test is finished. This can be done quite beautifully with the contextmanager decorator:

from contextlib import contextmanager

@contextmanager
def run_server():
    cherrypy.engine.start()
    cherrypy.engine.wait(cherrypy.engine.states.STARTED)
    yield
    cherrypy.engine.exit()
    cherrypy.engine.block()

This allows us to conviniently wrap the code that does requests to the server. The first part initiates the CherryPy start-up and then waits until that has completed. The yield is where the requests happen later. After that, we initiate a shut-down and block until that has completed.

Similar to the “official way”, let’s suppose we want to test a simple “echo” Application that simply feeds a request back at the user:

class Echo(object):
    @cherrypy.expose
    def echo(self, message):
        return message

Now we can write a test with whatever framework we want to use:

class TestEcho(unittest.TestCase):
    def test_echo(self):
        cherrypy.tree.mount(Echo())
        with run_server():
            url = "http://127.0.0.1:8080/echo"
            params = {'message': 'secret'}
            r = requests.get(url, params=params)
            self.assertEqual(r.status_code, 200)
            self.assertEqual(r.content, "secret")

Now that feels a lot nicer than the official test API!

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Making CherryPy Application WSGI compatible

When choosing a micro web framework evolving it to fit your needs is key. As CherryPy is one of our choices I want to show you how to evolve it in terms of web server. Of course you can use the embedded CherryPy web server in development and for small sites. It is fast enough for many use cases and supports important features like SSL so you may come a long way just using it. There are several reasons to put your CherryPy behind a tried and trusted native web server like Apache or nginx:

  • Consistent production environment using different application servers (e.g. for Java and Python) using a powerful and uniform frontend
  • Many options and possibilites using Apache modules
  • Well known and understood environment for administrators
  • Separation of web-facing http server concerns and your web application
  • Improved performance and security

Making CherryPy a WSGI-compatible

The good news is that CherryPy application objects are already a WSGI-compliant application. So creating a wsgi.py like the following will enable integration with mod_wsgi of Apache:

def application(environ, start_response):
    cherrypy.tree.mount(MyApp(), script_name=None, config=None)
    return cherrypy.tree(environ, start_response)

Integrating with Apache’s mod_wsgi

It is quite easy to integrate a Python WSGI application with apache using mod_wsgi. If the module is present you just need to add some directives telling Apache where to mount the wsgi application defined by your wsgi.py script:

WSGIScriptAlias /my_app /path/to/wsgi.py
# May be required to allow your web app using libraries installed on the system
<Directory /usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/ >
    Order deny,allow
    Allow from all
    Require all granted
</Directory>

After you have such a setup working properly you can consult the mod_wsgi documentation on how to improve in regards to threading, script reloading etc.

Configuring the WSGI-app

Many web applications need some form of configuration. Your application should not make assumptions on its install location or some directory structure. Generally speaking, an application should never assume that it can use relative path names for accessing the filesystem. Also access to operating system environment variables is dangerous because the application may run in different contexts. But we can specify WSGI-environment variables in the web servers’ configuration. An easy and safe way is to provide the configuration directory and other values using WSGI-environment variables that we can specify in the mod_wsgi configuration:

WSGIScriptAlias /my_app /path/to/wsgi.py
SetEnv configuration_dir /etc/my_shiny_web_app
...

We can access the wsgi-environment in python like so:

def application(environ, start_response):
    configdir = environ['configuration_dir']
    cherrypy.config.update(os.path.join(configdir, 'global.conf'))

    cherrypy.tree.mount(MyApp(), config=os.path.join(configdir, 'my_app.conf'))
    return cherrypy.tree(environ, start_response)

Note: Because your web app can be mounted to other locations than “/” on the the web server your application should not hard-code absolute links and the like. They all will be dead if your app is mounted at a different location.