Gradle projects as Debian packages

Gradle is a great tool for setting up and building your Java projects. If you want to deliver them for Ubuntu or other debian-based distributions you should consider building .deb packages. Because of the quite steep learning curve of debian packaging I want to show you a step-by-step guide to get you up to speed.


You have a project that can be built by gradle using gradle wrapper. In addition you have a debian-based system where you can install and use the packaging utilities used to create the package metadata and the final packages.

To prepare the debian system you have to install some packages:

sudo apt install dh-make debhelper javahelper

Generating packaging infrastructure

First we have to generate all the files necessary to build full fledged debian packages. Fortunately, there is a tool for that called dh_make. To correctly prefill the maintainer name and e-mail address we have to set 2 environment variables. Of course, you could change them later…

export DEBFULLNAME="John Doe"
export DEBEMAIL=""
cd $project_root
dh_make --native -p $project_name-$version

Choose “indep binary” (“i”) as type of package because Java is architecture indendepent. This will generate the debian directory containing all the files for creating .deb packages. You can safely ignore all of the files ending with .ex as they are examples features like manpage-generation, additional scripts pre- and post-installation and many other aspects.

We will concentrate on only two files that will allow us to build a nice basic package of our software:

  1. control
  2. rules

Adding metadata for our Java project

In the control file fill all the properties if relevant for your project. They will help your users understand what the package contains and whom to contact in case of problems. You should add the JRE to depends, e.g.:

Depends: openjdk-8-jre, ${misc:Depends}

If you have other dependencies that can be resolved by packages of the distribution add them there, too.

Define the rules for building our Java project

The most important file is the rules makefile which defines how our project is built and what the resulting package contents consist of. For this to work with gradle we use the javahelper dh_make extension and override some targets to tune the results. Key in all this is that the directory debian/$project_name/ contains a directory structure with all our files we want to install on the target machine. In our example we will put everything into the directory /opt/my_project.

#!/usr/bin/make -f
# -*- makefile -*-

# Uncomment this to turn on verbose mode.
#export DH_VERBOSE=1

	dh $@ --with javahelper # use the javahelper extension

	export GRADLE_USER_HOME="`pwd`/gradle"; \
	export GRADLE_OPTS="-Dorg.gradle.daemon=false -Xmx512m"; \
	./gradlew assemble; \
	./gradlew test

# here we can install additional files like an upstart configuration
	export UPSTART_TARGET_DIR=debian/my_project/etc/init/; \
	mkdir -p $${UPSTART_TARGET_DIR}; \
	install -m 644 debian/my_project.conf $${UPSTART_TARGET_DIR};

# additional install target of javahelper
	LIB_DIR="debian/my_project/opt/my_project/lib"; \
	mkdir -p $${LIB_DIR}; \
	install lib/*.jar $${LIB_DIR}; \
	install build/libs/*.jar $${LIB_DIR};
	BIN_DIR="debian/my_project/opt/my_project/bin"; \
	mkdir -p $${BIN_DIR}; \
	install build/scripts/ $${BIN_DIR}; \

Most of the above should be self-explanatory. Here some things that cost me some time and I found noteworthy:

  • Newer Gradle version use a lot memory and try to start a daemon which does not help you on your build slaves (if using a continous integration system)
  • The rules file is in GNU make syntax and executes each command separately. So you have to make sure everything is on “one line” if you want to access environment variables for example. This is achieved by \ as continuation character.
  • You have to escape the $ to use shell variables.


Debian packaging can be daunting at first but using and understanding the tools you can build new packages of your projects in a few minutes. I hope this guide helps you to find a starting point for your gradle-based projects.


Advanced deb-packaging with CMake

CMake has become our C/C++ build tool of choice because it provides good cross-platform support and very reasonable IDE (Visual Studio, CLion, QtCreator) integration. Another very nice feature is the included packaging support using the CPack module. It allows to create native deployable artifacts for a plethora of systems including NSIS-Installer for Windows, RPM and Deb for Linux, DMG for Mac OS X and a couple more.

While all these binary generators share some CPACK-variables there are specific variables for each generator to use exclusive packaging system features or requirements.

Deb-packaging features

The debian package management system used not only by Debian but also by Ubuntu, Raspbian and many other Linux distributions. In addition to dependency handling and versioning packagers can use several other features, namely:

  • Specifying a section for the packaged software, e.g. Development, Games, Science etc.
  • Specifying package priorities like optional, required, important, standard
  • Specifying the relation to other packages like breaks, enhances, conflicts, replaces and so on
  • Using maintainer scripts to customize the installation and removal process like pre- and post-install, pre- and post-removal
  • Dealing with configuration files to protect end user customizations
  • Installing and linking files and much more without writing shell scripts using ${project-name}.{install | links | ...} files

All these make the software easier to package or easier to manage by your end users.

Using deb-features with CMake

Many of the mentioned features are directly available as appropriately named CMake-variables all starting with CPACK_DEBIAN_.  I would like to specifically mention the CPACK_DEBIAN_PACKAGE_CONTROL_EXTRA variable where you can set the maintainer scripts and one of my favorite features: conffiles.

Deb protects files under /etc from accidental overwriting by default. If you want to protect files located somewhere else you specify them in a file called conffiles each on a separate line:


If the user made changes to these files she will be asked what to do when updating the package:

  • keep the own version
  • use the maintainer version
  • review the situation and merge manually.

For extra security files like myproject.conf.dpkg-dist and myproject.conf.dpkg-old are created so no changes are lost.

Unfortunately, I did not get the linking feature working without using maintainer scripts. Nevertheless I advise you to use CMake for your packaging work instead of packaging using the native debhelper way.

It is much more natural for a CMake-based project and you can reuse much of your metadata for other target platforms. It also shields you from a lot of the gory details of debian packaging without removing too much of the power of deb-packages.

Packaging Python projects for Debian/Ubuntu

Deployment of software using built-in software management tools is very convenient and provides a nice user experience (UX) for the users. For debian-based linux distributions like Ubuntu packaging software in .deb-packages is the way to go. So how can we prepare our python projects for packaging as a deb-package? The good news is that python is supported out-of-the-box in the debian package build system.

Alternatively, you can use the distutils-extension stdeb if you do not need complete flexibility in creating the packages.

Basic python deb-package

If you are using setuptools/distutils for your python project debian packaging consists of editing the package metadata and adding --with python to the rules file. For a nice headstart we can generate templates of the debian metadata files using two simple commands (the debhelper package is needed for dh_make:

# create a tarball with the current project sources
python sdist
# generate the debian package metadata files 
dh_make -p ${project_name}_${version} -f dist/${project_name}-${version}.tar.gz 

You have to edit at least the control-file, the changelog and the rules-file to build the python package. In the rules-file the make-target % is the crucial point and should include the flag to build a python project:

# main packaging script based on dh7 syntax
	dh $@ --with python

After that you can build the package issueing dpkg-buildpackage.

The caveats

The debian packaging system is great in complaining about non-conformant aspects of your package. It demands digital signatures, correct file and directory names including version strings etc. Unfortunately it is not very helpful when you make packaging  mistakes resulting in empty, incomplete or broken packages.

Issues with

The build script has to reside on the same level as the debian-directory containing the package metadata. The packaging tools will not tell you if they could not find the setup script. In addition it will always run using python 2, even if you specified --with python3 in the rules-file.

Packaging for specific python versions

If you want better control over the target python versions for the package you should use Pybuild. You can do this by a little change to the rules-file, e.g. a python3-only build using Pybuild:

# main packaging script based on dh7 syntax
	dh $@ --with python3 --buildsystem=pybuild

For pybuild to work it is crucial to add the needed python interpreter(s) besides the mandatory build dependency dh-python to the Build-Depends of the control-file, for python3-only it could look like this:

Build-Depends: debhelper (>=9), dh-python, python3-all
Depends: ${python3:Depends}

Without the dh-python build dependency pybuild will silently do nothing. Getting the build dependencies wrong will create incomplete or broken packages. Take extra care of getting this right!


Debian packaging looks quite intimidating at first because there are so many ways to build a package. Many different tools can ease package creation but also add confusion. Packaging python software is done easily if you know the quirks. The python examples from the Guide for Debian Maintainers are certainly worth a look!

Introduction to Debian packaging

In former posts I wrote about packaging your software as RPM packages for a variety of use cases. The other big binary packaging system on Linux systems is DEB for Debian, Ubuntu and friends. Both serve the purpose of convenient distribution, installation and update of binary software artifacts. They define their dependencies and describe what the package provides.

How do you provide your software as DEB packages?

The master guide to debian packaging can be found at It is a very comprehensive guide spanning many pages and providing loads of information. Building a usable package of your software for your clients can be a matter of minutes if you know what to do. So I want to show you the basic steps, for refinement you will need to consult the guide or other resources specific to the software you want to package. For example there are several guides specific to packaging of software written in Python. I find it hard to determine what the current and recommended way to debian packages for python is because there are differing guides over the last 10 years or so. You may of course say “Just use pip for python” 🙂

Basic tools

The basic tools for building debian packages are debhelper and dh-make. To check the resulting package you will need lintian in addition. You can install them and basic software build tools using:

  sudo apt-get install build-essential dh-make debhelper lintian

The python packaging system uses make and several scripts under the hood to help building the binary packages out of source tarballs.

Your first package

First you need a tar-archive of the software you want to package. With python setuptools you could use python sdist to generate the tarball. Then you run dh_make on it to generate metadata and the package build environment for your package. Now you have to edit the metadata files, namely control, copyright, changelog. Finally you run dpkg-buildpackage to generate the package itself.  Here is an example of the necessary commands:

mkdir hello-deb-1.0
cd hello-deb-1.0
dh_make -f ../hello-deb-1.0.tar.gz
# edit deb metadata files
vi debian/control
vi debian/copyright
vi debian/changelog
dpkg-buildpackage -us -uc
lintian -i -I --show-overrides hello-deb_1.0-1_amd64.changes

The control file roughly resembles RPMs SPEC file. Package name, description, version and dependency information belong there. Note that debian is very strict when it comes to naming of packages, so make sure you use the pattern ${name}-${version}.tar.gz for the archive and that it extracts into a corresponding directory without the extension, e.g. ${name}-${version}.

If everything went ok several files were generated in your base directory:

  • The package itself as .deb file
  • A file containing the changelog and checksums between package versions and revisions ending with .changes
  • A file with the package description ending with .dsc
  • A tarball with the original sources renamed according to debian convention hello-deb_1.0.orig.tar.gz (note the underscore!)

Going from here

Of course there is a lot more to the tooling and workflow when maintaining debian packages. In future posts I will explore additional means for improving and updating your packages like the quilt patch management tool, signing the package, symlinking, scripts for pre- and post-installation and so forth.