OPC-UA Performance and Bulk Reads

In a previous post on OPC on this blog I introduced some basics of OPC. Now we’ll take look at some performance characteristics of OPC-UA. Performance depends both on the used OPC server and the client, of course. But there are general tips to improve performance.

  • to get maximum performance use OPC without security

OPC message signing and encryption adds overhead. Turn off security for maximum performance if your use case allows to use OPC without security.

  • bulk reads increase performance

Bulk reads

A bulk read call reads multiple variables at once, which reduces communication overhead between client and server.

Here’s a code example using Eclipse Milo, an open-source OPC-UA stack implementation for the Java VM.

final String endpointUrl = "opc.tcp://localhost:53530/OPCUA/SimulationServer";
final EndpointDescription[] endpoints = UaTcpStackClient.getEndpoints(endpointUrl).get();
final OpcUaClientConfigBuilder config = new OpcUaClientConfigBuilder();

final OpcUaClient client = new OpcUaClient(config.build());

final List<NodeId> nodeIds = IntStream.rangeClosed(1, 50).mapToObj(i -> new NodeId(5, "Counter" + i)).collect(Collectors.toList());
final List<ReadValueId> readValueIds = nodeIds.stream().map(nodeId -> new ReadValueId(nodeId, AttributeId.Value.uid(), null, null)).collect(Collectors.toList());

// Bulk read call
final ReadResponse response = client.read(0, TimestampsToReturn.Both, readValueIds).get();
final DataValue[] results = response.getResults();
if (null != results) {
	final List<Integer> values = Arrays.stream(results).map(result -> (Integer) result.getValue().getValue()).collect(Collectors.toList());


The code performs a bulk read call on 50 integer variables (“Counter1” to “Counter50”). For performance tests you can put the bulk read call in a loop and measure the times. You should, however, connect to the server over the target network, not on localhost.

With a free (however not open-source) OPC UA simulation server by Prosys and Eclipse Milo for the client I measured times around 3.3 ms per bulk read of these 50 integer variables. I got similar results with the UA.NET stack by the OPC Foundation. Of course, you should do your own measurements with your target setup.

Keep also in mind that the preferred way to use OPC UA is not to constantly poll the values of all the variables. OPC UA allows you to monitor variables for changes and to get notified in case of a change, which is a more event-driven approach.


OPC Basics

OPC (Open Platform Communications) is a machine to machine communication protocol for industrial automation. In its simplest form it works like this:

An OPC server defines a set of variables within a directory tree-like hierarchy forming namespaces. Each variable has a data type like integer, boolean, real, string and a default value.

One or many OPC clients connect to the OPC server via a TCP based binary protocol, usually on port 4840. The clients can read and write the OPC variables provided by the server. Clients can also monitor OPC variables for changes so that you don’t have to poll the variables. In code this is usually done by registering a callback function that gets executed when the monitored variable changes.


A simple communication pattern between two OPC clients that we have used in OPC based interfaces is a handshake. This can either be a two-way handshake or a three-way handshake. The two-way handshake is in fact just an acknowledgement: One OPC client sets the value of a variable, the other client reads the variable and resets the value to the default value to confirm that it has read the variable. If you do not want to use the default value to indicate a read confirmation you can also use another variable as a confirmation flag. In a three-way handshake the first client also confirms the confirmation.


The current specification of OPC is OPC UA (Unified Architecture) by the OPC Foundation. It covers a lot more functionality than what is described above. It’s a unified successor to various OPC Classic specifications like OPC DA, A&E and HDA. If you want to get started with OPC UA development you can use one of the many client and server SDKs and toolkits for various programming languages.